Plant Identification Database:
Plant Families

The plant data on this site are a record of Bob Ronnow's field observations
which vary in accuracy and change with experience. For accurate and complete
information please use the links provided for each plant species and family.

Glossary of Botanical Terms



CLASSIFICATION
Characteristics
Family
Order
Class
LV: leaves; FL: flowers; FR: fruit; ST: stem, roots; EC: ecology
Araliaceae (Ginseng) Apiales Dicotyledonae Araliaceae: LV: alternate or whorled; FL: 5 parts, u. umbel single, <1/2", greenish white, 5 petals separate, 5 sepals, ovary inferior; FR: berry, red/purple; ST: EC: moist soil
Umbelliferae (Parsley) [Apiaceae] Apiales Dicotyledonae Umbelliferae: LV: u. alternate, u. sheath, u. pinnate or dissected; FL: 5 petals, u. umbel u. compound, indeterminate, <1/2", petals separate acute inflexed, 5 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: schizocarp; ST: u. herb, grooved, hollow; EC:
Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort; Dutchman's Pipe) Aristolochiales Dicotyledonae Aristolochiaceae: LV: alternate or basal, simple, entire or lobed, o. cordate base; FL: 3 parts, u. axillary, tubular, red, mottled, 0 petals, 3 sepals, ovary u. inferior; FR: capsule; ST: EC: u. tropical, LV/RT edible
Compositae (Daisy)
     
Ambrosieae [Ragweed]
     Anthemideae [Chamomile]
     Astereae [Aster]

     Cichorieae [Dandelion]
     Coreopsideae
     Cynareae [Artichoke]
     Eupatorieae [Boneset]
     Helenieae [Sneezeweed]
     Heliantheae [Sunflower]
     Inuleae [Everlasting]
     Senecioneae [Groundsel]
     Tageteae [Marigold]
     Vernonieae [Ironweed]
Asterales Dicotyledonae Ambrosieae: LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ parts, head, disk only, minute florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Anthemideae:
LV: alternate, pinnate, aromatic; FL: 7+ parts, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts scarious/translucent, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Astereae:
LV: alternate; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Cichorieae: LV: alternate/basal; FL: 7+ florets, head, ray only, petals imbricate apex truncate u. serrate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub, milky juice; EC: LV u. edible raw, RT o. edible raw
Coreopsideae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Cynareae:
LV: alternate, u. pinnate, spiny; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts o. imbricate conical/spherical o. spines, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Eupatorieae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk only, minute florets, not u. yellow, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, stigma oblanceolate, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Helenieae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Heliantheae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Inuleae:
LV: u. alternate, entire, gray-green; FL: 7+ florets, head, ray, imbricate bracts scarious/translucent, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Senecioneae:
LV: u. alternate/basal; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, base white silky pappus, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Tageteae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Vernonieae:
LV: u. alternate; FL: 7+ florets, head, ray only, not yellow, imbricate bracts, stigma long threadlike pubescent, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Capparaceae (Caper) Brassicales Dicotyledonae Capparaceae: LV: o. palmate; FL: 4 parts, u. raceme, 4 separate petals, 4 separate sepals, stamens long, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule, seeds reniform; ST: EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Cruciferae (Mustard) [Brassicaceae] Brassicales Dicotyledonae Cruciferae: LV: alternate a/o basal; FL: 4 petals, 4 sepals, raceme or cyme, indeterminate, terminal, u. <1", petals separate, sepals separate, u. 6 stamens (4t,2s), ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: herb; EC: edible (LV raw, FR raw)
Callitrichaceae (Water-starwort) Callitrichales Dicotyledonae Callitrichaceae: LV: decussate, u. linear/spatulate; FL: u. solitary, axillary; FR: nutlet; ST: herb, submerged; EC: aquatic
Campanulaceae (Bluebell) [Bellflower, Harebell, Lobelia] Campanulales Dicotyledonae Campanulaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. simple, exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, u. raceme, u. connate, o. blue/white, u. 5 petals, 5 stamens, style apex o. tomentose, ovary inferior; FR: u. capsule; ST: u. herb, milky/watery sap; EC:
Aizoaceae (Carpetweed; Fig-marigold); Ice-plant) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Aizoaceae: LV: simple, u. opposite or whorled, entire, u. fleshy; FL: actinomorphic, apetalous, 5-8 sepals, numerous stamens; FR: u. capsule; ST: herb; EC:
Amaranthaceae (Amaranth) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Amaranthaceae: LV: simple, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: u. 5 parts, minute, axillary, white pink red, congested inflorescence, apetalous, 4-5 sepals imbricate, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. circumscissile capsule; ST: herb/shrub, u. stem red; EC:
Cactaceae (Cactus) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Cactaceae: LV: u. absent; FL: 7+ parts, actinomorphic, u. solitary, stamens numerous, ovary inferior; FR: berry, u. spines; ST: fleshy, succulent, spines, buds spiny & bristly areole, roots shallow; EC: FR u. edible, u. xeric
Caryophyllaceae (Pink) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Caryophyllaceae: LV: simple, u. opposite, decussate, u. linear, entire, u. exstipulate; FL: u. 5 parts, actinomorphic, u. white pink, u. terminal, u. 5 separate petals o. emarginate or cleft, 5 sepals, u. 5 or 10 stamens, 2-5 styles & stigmas, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: u. herb, u. swollen nodes; EC:
Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Chenopodiaceae: LV: simple, u. alternate, u. succulent; FL: u. 5 parts, green, minute, dense spike-like, apetalous, u. 5 sepals, u. 5 stamens, 2 styles, ovary superior; FR: ST: herb/shrub; EC: LV u. edible, FR u. edible
Molluginaceae Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Molluginaceae: LV: simple; FL: FR: ST: u. herb; EC:
Nyctaginaceae (Four-o'clock) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Nyctaginaceae: LV: simple, u. opposite, entire, exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, actinomorphic, tubular, apetalous, 5 united sepals, style long, ovary superior; FR: u. achene; ST: EC: u. tropics/subtropical
Phytolaccaceae (Pokeweed) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Phytolaccaceae: LV: alternate, simple, entire; FL: 4-5 parts, actinomorphic, u. green white, u. raceme u. drooping, minute, apetalous, 4-5 tepals axillary; FR: u. berry-like; ST: EC:
Portulacaceae (Purslane) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Portulacaceae: LV: simple, entire, u. stipulate, u. succulent; FL: u. 5 parts, 2 sepals (bracts), u. several styles; FR: capsule; ST: herb, <1', o. prostrate, o. fleshy, o. fleshy taproot; EC:
Aquifoliaceae (Holly) Celastrales Dicotyledonae Aquifoliaceae: LV: alternate, simple, o. coriaceous; FL: u. 4 parts, u. axillary, white/greenish, small, actinomorphic, ovary superior; FR: berry/drupe, red/purple; ST: tree/shrub; EC: acidophilic
Celastraceae (Stafftree; Bittersweet) Celastrales Dicotyledonae Celastraceae: LV: simple; FL: u. 5 parts, actinomorphic, axillary, u. greenish white, small, stigma 2-5 lobed; FR: seeds brightly colored; ST: trees/shrubs/vines; EC:
Cornaceae (Dogwood) Cornales Dicotyledonae Cornaceae: LV: u. opposite, simple, u. entire, u. arcuate venation; FL: u. 4 parts, u. white, 4 petals, o. 4 petaloid bracts, 4 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: drupe/berry; ST: tree/shrub/woody plant; EC:
Garryaceae (Silk Tassel) Cornales Dicotyledonae Garryaceae: LV: opposite, simple, decussate, entire, evergreen, coriaceous; FL: u. catkin, axillary; FR: berry; ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Nyssaceae (Tupelo) Cornales Dicotyledonae Nyssaceae: LV: alternate, simple, entire, deciduous, u. arcuate venation, estipulate; FL: 5 parts, u. white, 5 petals, ovary inferior; FR: drupe, ovoid/oblong; ST: tree, buds imbricate; EC:
Crossosomataceae (Crossosoma) Crossosomatales Dicotyledonae
Diapensiaceae (Diapensia) Diapensiales Dicotyledonae Diapensiaceae: LV: alternate, stipulate; FL: 5 parts; FR: capsule; ST: subshrub/herb; EC:
Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle)
     Adoxaceae [Viburnum]
     Caprifoliaceae [Honeysuckle]     
Dipsacales Dicotyledonae Adoxaceae: LV: opposite; FL: 5 parts, actinomorphic, determinate, u. 5 stamens; FR: drupe; ST: u. shrub; EC: FR edible raw
Caprifoliaceae: LV: opposite, decussate, simple; FL: 5 parts, zygomprphic, determinate, petals united connate, u. 5 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: ST: u. shrub; EC:
Dipsacaceae (Teasel) Dipsacales Dicotyledonae Dipsacaceae: LV: u. opposite, simple; FL: head, tubular, zygomotphic, 4-5 united petals, 5 sepals, spiny bract, 4 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: herb/subshrub; EC:
Valerianaceae (Valerian) Dipsacales Dicotyledonae Valerianaceae: LV: opposite/basal; FL: irregular, zygomorphic, small, 5 united petals tubular, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: EC:
Clethraceae (White-alder) Ericales Dicotyledonae Clethraceae: LV: alternate, simple, petiole short; FL: 5 petals 5 sepals, actinomorphic, terminal raceme/panicle, u. white/pink, 10 stamens, stigma 3-lobed, ovary superior, ; FR: capsule 3-valved; ST: tree/shrub, stellate pubescence; EC
Ebenaceae (Ebony) Ericales Dicotyledonae Ebenaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. simple, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: connate, o. urceolate, u. coriaceous, actinomorphic, axillary, u. dioecious, ovary superior; FR: berry, orange/red/black; ST: tree/shrub; EC: u. tropical
Empetraceae (Crowberry) Ericales Dicotyledonae Empetraceae: LV: alternate, crowded, evergreen; FL: u. dioecious, inconspicuous; FR: berry; ST: shrub, creeping; EC:
Ericaceae (Heath)
     Rhododendroideae [Rhododendron]
     Vaccinioideae [Blueberry]
Ericales Dicotyledonae Rhododendroideae: LV: simple; FL: petals united, sepals united, long style, spheric stigma, ovary superior; FR: septicidal capsule; ST: shrub/tree; EC: u. poisonous
Vaccinioideae:
LV: simple; FL: petals united, sepals united, pendulous, u. urceolate, long style, spheric stigma, ovary inferior; FR: loculicidal capsule or berry; ST: shrub/vine/tree; EC: FR u. edible
Monotropaceae (Indian pipe) Ericales Dicotyledonae Monotropaceae: LV: alternate, scale-like, lacking chlorophyll; FL: petals united, sepals united, pendulous, urceolate, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: herb, fleshy; EC:
Pyrolaceae (Wintergreen) Ericales Dicotyledonae Pyrolaceae: LV: evergreen FL: 4-5 petals separate, 4-5 sepals separate, pendulous, perfect, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule, round; ST: herb; EC: forest
Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) Euphorbiales Dicotyledonae Euphorbiaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. stipulate; FL: o. indistinguishable, actinomorphic, petals 5 or u. absent, sepals 5 or s. absent, o. colorful bracts, imperfect, overy superior; FR: u. schizocarp capsule, s. drupe; ST: o. succulent, milky sap; EC: u. poisonous
Simmondsiaceae (Jojoba) Euphorbiales Dicotyledonae Simmondsiaceae: LV: opposite, evergreen, stipulate, simple, coriacious; FL: regular, dioecious, 3 long feathery stigmas; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: shrub; EC:
Leguminosae (Pea)
     Caesalpinioideae [Bird-of-Paradise Tree]
     Faboideae [Pea]
     Mimosoideae [Mimosa]
Fabales Dicotyledonae CaesalpinioideaeLV: alternate, u. pinnately compound, u. entire, stipule, pulvinus; FL: 5 petals irregular, style long arching, ovary superior; FR: u. legume; ST: u. tree/shrub, root nodules; EC:
Faboideae:
LV: alternate, u. pinnately or palmately compound, u. entire, stipule, pulvinus; FL: 5 petals irregular (banner, wings, keel), style long arching, ovary superior; FR: u. legume; ST: root nodules; EC:
Mimosoideae:
LV: alternate, u. pinnately compound, u. entire, stipule, pulvinus; FL: 5 petals separate, stamens long, style long arching, ovary superior; FR: u. legume; ST: u. tree/shrub, root nodules; EC:
Betulaceae (Birch) Fagales Dicotyledonae Betulaceae: LV: alternate, deciduous, stipulate, simple, serrate, pinnate venation; FL: catkin/spike/fascicle, monoecious, minute, imperfect, 2 styles, ovary inferior; FR: nut/samara; ST: tree/shrub; EC: u. forest
Fagaceae (Beech/Oak) Fagales Dicotyledonae Fagaceae: LV: alternate, simple, o. lobed, coriaceous; FL: 0 petals, axillary, monoecious, minute, imperfect, ovary inferior; FR: nut; ST: tree/shrub; EC: u. forest
Apocynaceae (Dogbane) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Apocynaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, colleters, simple, entire; FL: actinomorphic, 5 united connate petals, 5 united sepals, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. 2-follicle , o. comose seeds; ST: milky sap; EC: u. poisonous, u. tropical
Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Asclepiadaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, colleters, simple, entire; FL: actinomorphic, 5 reflexed petals, 5 united sepals, 5-part corona, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. follicle, u. comose seeds; ST: milky sap; EC: u. poisonous, u. tropical
Gentianaceae (Gentian) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Gentianaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, sessile, simple, entire; FL: actinomorphic, 4-5 united petals, 4-5 united sepals, u. perfect, 4-5 stamens, 2 -lobed stigma, ovary superior; FR: u. septicidal capsule; ST: u. herb, stem winged; EC:
Loganiaceae (Logania) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Loganiaceae: LV: opposite, stipulate, simple, entire; FL: sympetalous 4-5 lobes, 4-5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. septicidal capsule, seeds o. winged; ST: vine/tree/shrub; EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Rubiaceae (Bedstraw) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Rubiaceae: LV: opposite/whorled, simple, entire; FL: regular, 4-5 petals, 4-5 sepals, u. perfect, 4-5 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: ST: o. 4-angled; EC:
Balsaminaceae (Touch-me-not) Geraniales Dicotyledonae Balsaminaceae: LV: simple, exstipulate; FL: irregular, 5 petals 2 united, sepal spur, resupinate, o. nodding, bisexual, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: herb, u. glabrous, translucent, o. swollen nodes; EC: u. tropical
Geraniaceae (Geranium) Geraniales Dicotyledonae Geraniaceae: LV: u. simple, o. lobed/cleft, stipulate, aromatic; FL: regular, 5 petals o. emarginate, 5 sepals separate, o. red/blue, bisexual, 10/15 stamens 5-part stigma, ovary superior; FR: beaked schizocarp; ST: herb/shrub, pubescent; EC:
Oxalidaceae (Wood-sorrel) Geraniales Dicotyledonae Oxalidaceae: LV: alternate, pulvinous, o. 3-palmate, entire, apex emarginate; FL: regular, 5 petals o. clawed, 5 sepals, bisexual, 10 stamens, 5 styles, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: u. herb; EC:
Haloragaceae (Water-milfoil) Haloragales Dicotyledonae Haloragaceae: LV: dissected; FL: 4 sepals separate, greenish, imperfect, ovary inferior; FR: nutlet or drupe; ST: u. herb; EC: aquatic
Hamamelidaceae (Witch-hazel) Hamamelidales Dicotyledonae Hamamelidaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. stipulate, simple, s. lobed, u. serrate; FL: 4-5 petals, 4-5 sepals basally connate, 4 stamens, 2 styles, ovary u. half-inferior; FR: capsule (2-chambered), bony seeds; ST: tree/shrub, o. pubescent; EC:
Platanaceae (Sycamore) Hamamelidales Dicotyledonae Platanaceae: LV: alternate, simple, palmately lobed, 4-7", pulvinous, stipulate, tomentose young leaves; FL: actinomorphic, minute, globose, pendulous, imperfect, ovary superior; FR: achene, linear, 4-angled, bristles, globose head; ST: tree, exfoliating, zigzag twigs, buds valvate; EC: o. riparian
Juglandaceae (Walnut) Juglandales Dicotyledonae Juglandaceae: LV: altrnate, pinnately compound, serrate, glandular below; FL: 0 petals 4 sepals, staminate catkin, carpellate spike or solitary, minute, late spring, monoecious, imperfect, 2 styles, 2 stigmas, ovary inferior; FR: nut; ST: u. tree, large leaf scars; EC: FR edible
Boraginaceae (Forget-me-not) Lamiales Dicotyledonae Boraginaceae: LV: u. simple, u. alternate, entire, o. hispid; FL: 5 petals connate, 5 sepals separate hispid, actinomorphic, o. spike/helicoid cyme, terminal, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: schizocarp, 4 nutlets; ST: u. herb, hispid; EC:
Labiatae (Mint) [Lamiaceae] Lamiales Dicotyledonae Labiatae: LV: u. opposite & decussate, u. simple, u. serrate, u. aromatic, pinnate venation; FL: 5 petals irregular connate (u. 2 lobes up, 3 lobes down), 5 sepals, deterrminate, u. axillary, <1", u. 4 stamens (2t,2s), stigma 2-lobed, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule (4 nutlets); ST: u. 4-angled, u. pubescent; EC:
Orobanchaceae (Broomrape) Lamiales Dicotyledonae Orobanchaceae: LV: alternate, simple, scale; FL: 5 petals (2 above, 3 below) united tubular, irregular, perfect, 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: herb, not green no chlorophyll, fleshy; EC: ecology
Verbenaceae (Vervain) [Verbena] Lamiales Dicotyledonae Verbenaceae: LV: simple, opposite or s. whorled; FL: zygomorphic, 5 petals connate tubular, 5 sepals connate tubular, spike, indeterminate, small 1/6-1/3", summer/fall, perfect, 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: drupe or schizocarp; ST: o. angled, u. pubescent; EC:
Lauraceae (Laurel) Laurales Dicotyledonae Lauraceae: LV: u. alternate, entire or lobed, u. aromatic; FL: 6 parts, actinomorphic, imbricate, green yellow white, axillary, small, 0 petals, 6 sepals, u. 12 stamens, ovary superior; FR: drupe or berry; ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Linaceae (Flax) Linales Dicotyledonae Linaceae: LV: u. alternate, sessile, simple, entire; FL: 5 petals separate, 5 sepals separate, regular, u. terminal, perfect, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: EC:
Annonaceae (Custard-apple) Magnoliales Dicotyledonae Annonaceae: LV: evergreen, alternate, simple, entire, pinnate venation; FL: regular; 3 or 6 petals, 3 sepals, u. perfect, ovary superior; FR: berry; ST: tree/shrub/vine, buds naked; EC: subtropical/tropical
Magnoliaceae (Magnolia) Magnoliales Dicotyledonae Magnoliaceae: LV: alternate, simple, o. evergreen, stipulate; FL: u. solitary, large, u. perfect, stamens numerous, ovary superior; FR: ST: tree/shrub; EC: o. subtropical/tropical
Elatinaceae (Waterwort) Malpighiales Dicotyledonae Elatinaceae: LV: simple; FL: small, axillary, perfect; FR: capsule; ST: herb, o. creeping; EC: aquatic
Malvaceae (Mallow) Malvales Dicotyledonae Malvaceae: LV: alternate, u. palmately lobed; FL: 5 petals separate, u. connate, o. solitary, o. axillary, stamens fused, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule/schizocarp; ST: u. mucilaginous; EC: u. LV/FL/FR edible
Tiliaceae (Linden/Basswood) Malvales Dicotyledonae Tiliaceae: LV: alternate, stipulate, serrate, o. base inequilateral; FL: u. 5 petals, 5 sepals, actinomorphic, u. white/yellow, u. perfect, stamens numerous, ovary superior; FR: ST: u. tree/shrub; EC:
Myricaceae (Bayberry) Myricales Dicotyledonae Myricaceae: LV: alternate, whole, o. leathery, glandular below, aromatic; FL: actinomorphic, o. spicate, u. erect, axillary, imperfect; FR: u. drupe, o. tuberculate, o. glaucous; ST: u. shrub; EC:
Lythraceae (Loosestrife) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Lythraceae: LV: opposite/whorled, whole, entire; FL: actinomorphic, petals erose, tubular, perfect; FR: capsule; ST: u. herb; EC: u. wetland
Melastomataceae (Meadow-beauty) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Melastomataceae: LV: opposite, decussate, whole, parallel venation; FL: s. zygomorphic, u. 4 petals, u. 4 sepals, perfect, anthers curved; FR: ST: EC: u. tropical
Onagraceae (Evening-primrose) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Onagraceae: LV: whole, entire; FL: 4 petals, 4sepals, u. perfect, u. 4 or 8 stamens, 4-part stigma, ovary inferior; FR: u. capsule; ST: u. herb; EC:
Thymelaeaceae (Mezereum) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Thymelaeaceae: LV: whole, entire; FL: actinomorphic, u. tubular, ovary superior; FR: ST: EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Droseraceae (Sundew) Nepenthales Dicotyledonae Droseraceae: LV: basal rosette, spatulate, pubescent-glandular, insectivorous; FL: 5 petals separate, 5 sepals, o. scapose, indeterminate, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule ST: u. herb; EC: wetland
Sarraceniaceae (Pitcher-plant) Nepenthales Dicotyledonae Sarraceniaceae: LV: basal, whole, tubular, pubescent-glandular, insectivorous; FL: actinomorphic, 5 petals, u. 5 sepals, solitary, terminal, scapose, nodding, perfect, stamens numerous, stigma umbrella-like, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: herb; EC: wetland
Cabombaceae (Water-shield) Nymphaeales Dicotyledonae Cabombaceae: LV: FL: solitary, perfect, ovary superior; FR: achene; ST: herb; EC: aquatic
Ceratophyllaceae (Hornwort) Nymphaeales Dicotyledonae
Nymphaeaceae (Water-lily) Nymphaeales Dicotyledonae
Fumariaceae (Bleeding heart) Papaverales Dicotyledonae
Papaveraceae (Poppy) Papaverales Dicotyledonae
Saururaceae (Lizard's-tail) Piperales Dicotyledonae
Plantaginaceae (Plantain) Plantaginales Dicotyledonae
Plumbaginaceae (Sea-lavender; Leadwort) Plumbaginales Dicotyledonae
Polygalaceae (Milkwort) Polygalales Dicotyledonae
Polygonaceae (Buckwheat) Polygonales Dicotyledonae Polygonaceae: LV: whole, u. alternate, u. entire, sheath; FL: small <1", actinomorphic, o. cylindrical head or spike, crowded inflorescence, no petals, u. 5-6 sepals, 3-9 stamens, ovary superior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub, jointed nodes; EC:
Primulaceae (Primrose) Primulales Dicotyledonae
Berberidaceae (Barberry) Ranunculales Dicotyledonae
Menispermaceae (Moonseed) Ranunculales Dicotyledonae
Ranunculaceae (Buttercup) Ranunculales Dicotyledonae
Elaeagnaceae (Oleaster) Rhamnales Dicotyledonae Elaeagnaceae: LV: simple, entire, exstipulate; FL: 4 parts, 0 petals, 4 sepals united tubular or cup-shaped; FR: drupe enclosing achene, gray or red-orange; ST: shrub/tree, twig scales gold-brown; EC: o. xerophytic
Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn) Rhamnales Dicotyledonae
Vitaceae (Grape) Rhamnales Dicotyledonae
Crassulaceae (Sedum) [Stonecrop] Rosales Dicotyledonae
Grossulariaceae (Currant) Rosales Dicotyledonae
Hydrangeaceae (Hydrangea) Rosales Dicotyledonae

Rosaceae (Rose)
      Amygdaloideae [Plum]
      Maloideae [Apple]
      Rosoideae [Rose]
      Spiraeoideae [Spiraea]

Rosales Dicotyledonae
Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage) Rosales Dicotyledonae
Salicaceae (Willow) Salicales Dicotyledonae
Santalaceae (Sandalwood) Santalales Dicotyledonae
Viscaceae (Mistletoe) Santalales Dicotyledonae
Aceraceae (Maple) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Aceraceae: LV: opposite, u. lobed, exstipulate, deciduous; FL: 5 parts, actinomorphic, <1", 4-10 stamens, ovary superior; FR: samara (double); ST: tree/shrub; EC: edible (FR raw, ST-inner bark raw, sap cooked)
Anacardiaceae (Cashew) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Anacardiaceae: LV: alternate, u. pinnate or trifoliate, u. exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, white green yellow, cymose, determinate, actinomorphic, 5 or 10 stamens, ovary superior; FR: drupe, red or white; ST: tree shrub vine, u. resinous; EC:
Hippocastanaceae (Buckeye) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Hippocastanaceae: LV: opposite, palmately compound, 3-9 obovate leaflets, exstipulate; FL: 4-5 parts, panicle/raceme, zygomorphic, large, sepals connate tubular, u. 5-8 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule, leathery spiny; ST: tree/shrub, lenticels, buds large, sticky, brown/black ; EC:
Rutaceae (Rue or Citrus) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Rutaceae: LV: u. entire, u. pinnate, glandular (punctate), aromatic; FL: 4-5 parts, u. actinomorphic, white yellow, cyme, determinate, ovary superior; FR: ST: u. tree/shrub; EC:
Sapindaceae (Soapberry) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Sapindaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. pinnate, u. persistent; FL: panicle/raceme, small, sepals u. separate; FR: ST: tree/shrub/vine, buds u. persistent; EC: u. tropical
Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Zygophyllaceae: LV: opposite, u. pinnate, entire, persistent; FL: 5 petals, 5 sepals, petals separate, sepals separate, u. 10 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: jointed nodes; EC: xeric
Acanthaceae (Acanthus) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Acanthaceae: LV: opposite, decussate, whole, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: u. 5 petals (2 above, 3 below), united, zygomorphic, u. axillary, 2 or 4 stamens, style long, ovary superior; FR: capsule, 2 valves; ST: u. herb; EC: u. tropical
Bignoniaceae (Trumpet-creeper) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Bignoniaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, u. palmate or pinnate, u. tendril, exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, zygomorphic, raceme/panicle, u. large, 5 petals united, bilabiate, u. tubular, u. 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule 2-valved, large; ST: u. vine; EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Lentibulariaceae (Bladderwort) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Lentibulariaceae: LV: simple or dissected underwater, alternate or basal rosette, exstipulate, u. bladder-like or revolute, insectivorous, glandular; FL: 5 parts, zygomorphoic, bilabiate, scapose, 5 petals united, 2 stamens, ovary superior: ; FR: capsule; ST: herb; EC: aquatic or moist
Oleaceae (Olive) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Oleaceae: LV: opposite, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: u. 4 parts, actinomorphic, raceme/panicle, u. 4 petals united, u. 4 sepals united, 2 stamens, ovary superior; FR: ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon) [Figwort] Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Scrophulariaceae: LV: u. simple, exstipulate; FL: u. 5 parts, zygomorphic, u. 5 petals (2 above, 3 below) united tubular, u. 5 sepals, u. 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: herb/shrub; EC:
Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory) Solanales Dicotyledonae
Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf) Solanales Dicotyledonae
Polemoniaceae (Phlox) Solanales Dicotyledonae
Solanaceae (Tomato) Solanales Dicotyledonae
Guttiferae (St. Johnswort)  [Clusiaceae] Theales Dicotyledonae
Moraceae (Mulberry) Urticales Dicotyledonae
Ulmaceae (Elm) Urticales Dicotyledonae
Urticaceae (Nettle) Urticales Dicotyledonae
Cistaceae (Rockrose) Violales Dicotyledonae
Cucurbitaceae (Cucumber/Gourd) Violales Dicotyledonae
Fouquieriaceae (Ocotillo) Violales Dicotyledonae
Tamaricaceae (Tamarisk) Violales Dicotyledonae
Violaceae (Violet) Violales Dicotyledonae
Alismataceae (Arrowhead) Alismatales Monocotyledonae
Araceae (Arum) Alismatales Monocotyledonae
Juncaginaceae (Arrow-grass) Alismatales Monocotyledonae
Palmae (Palm) Arecales Monocotyledonae
Agavaceae (Agave) Asparagales Monocotyledonae Agavaceae: LV: u. basal rosette, whole, lanceolate/linear, sessile, u. spiny edge, u. apex acicular, fibrous and/or succulent, veins parallel; FL: 6 parts, green white yellow, raceme/panicle, large, terminal, petals fleshy imbricate, 6 stamens, 1 pistil 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, seeds u. black; ST: herb/shrub; EC: u. arid/semiarid
Amaryllidaceae [Daffodil]
      Alliaceae [Onion]
      Amaryllidaceae [Daffodil]
Asparagales Monocotyledonae Alliaceae: LV: simple, entire, basal, u. linear, sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, u. actinomorphic, umbel, 3 petals, 3 sepals, imbricate, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, bulb; EC: u. roots edible
Amaryllidaceae: LV: simple, entire, basal, u. linear, sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, u. actinomorphic, umbellate, 3 petals, 3 sepals, imbricate, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate, ovary inferior; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, bulb; EC:
Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
      Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
      Hemerocallidaceae [Asphodel]
Asparagales Monocotyledonae Asparagaceae: LV: simple, entire, o. scale-like, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, imbricate, u. inconspicuous, 6 stamens, 1pistel, 3 styles, ovary superior; FR: u. berry, seeds globose; ST: rhizome; EC:
Hemerocallidaceae:
LV: u. basal, simple, entire, o. sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, o. spotted, u. actinomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, tuber; EC:
Bromeliaceae (Pineapple) Bromeliales Monocotyledonae
Commelinaceae (Spiderwort) Commelinales Monocotyledonae
Pontederiaceae (Pickerelweed) Commelinales Monocotyledonae
Xyridaceae (Yellow-eyed grass) Commelinales Monocotyledonae
Cyperaceae (Sedge) [A-C]
Cyperaceae (Sedge) [D-Z]
Cyperales Monocotyledonae

Gramineae (Grass) [Poaceae]
      Agrostideae [Timothy]
      Andropogoneae [Sorghum]
      Aveneae [Oat]
      Chlorideae [Grama]
      Festuceae [Fescue]
      Hordeae [Barley]
      Oryzeae [Rice]
      Paniceae [Crabgrass]
      Phalarideae [Canary Grass]
      Tripsaceae [Corn]

Cyperales Monocotyledonae Agrostideae: LV: FL: 1 perfect floret, glume well developed, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Andropogoneae:
LV: FL: 2 florets per spikelet, glumes thicker than lemma, spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Aveneae:
LV: FL: 2+ perfect florets, glumes as long or longer than lemma, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Chlorideae:
LV: FL: u. 1 perfect floret, unilateral spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Festuceae:
LV: FL: 2+ perfect florets, u. glumes shorter than lemma, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Hordeae:
LV: FL: u. 2+ perfect florets, terminal bilateral spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Oryzeae:
LV: FL: 1 perfect floret, glumes reduced, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Paniceae:
LV: FL: u. 2 florets per spikelet, glumes thinner than lemma, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Phalarideae:
LV: FL: 1 perfect floret, reduced florets below, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Tripsaceae:
LV: FL: 2 florets per spikelet, glumes thicker than lemma, spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharitales Monocotyledonae
Juncaceae (Rush) Juncales Monocotyledonae
Iridaceae (Iris) Liliales Monocotyledonae Iridaceae: LV: simple, entire, u. basal, linear lanceolate, sheath, parallel vein; FL: 6 parts, connate, tubular, 2 papery bracts, o. scapose, u. large, 3 stamens,1 pistil, 3 styles, ovary inferior; FR: 3-valved capsule; ST: herb; EC:
Liliaceae (Lily)
      Liliaceae [Lily]
      Melanthiaceae [Bunch Flower]
Liliales Monocotyledonae Liliaceae: LV: simple, entire, o. sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, o. spotted, u. actinomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, u. bulb; EC:
Melanthiaceae:
LV: simple, entire, o. sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, o. spotted, u. actinomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, crowded raceme, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, u. bulb; EC: u. poisonous
Smilacaceae (Greenbrier) Liliales Monocotyledonae Smilacaceae: LV: simple, u. alternate, palmate venation, coriaceous, tendrils; FL: 6 parts, umbel, u. axillary, small, 6 stamens, 1 pistil 3 carpellate, ovary superior; FR: berry, 1-3 seeds; ST: vine, recurved prickles, rhizome/tuber; EC:
Najadeaceae Najadales Monocotyledonae
Potamogetonaceae (Pondweed) Najadales Monocotyledonae
Orchidaceae (Orchid) Orchidales Monocotyledonae Orchidaceae: LV: simple, alternate, sessile, entire, parallel venation; FL: zygomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, perfect, stamen/style adnate, overy inferior; FR: capsule; ST: herb; EC:
Eriocaulaceae (Pipewort) Poales Monocotyledonae
Sparganiaceae (Bur-reed) Typhales Monocotyledonae
Typhaceae (Cattail) Typhales Monocotyledonae
Cupressaceae (Cypress) Coniferales Gymnospermae
Pinaceae (Pine) Coniferales Gymnospermae
Taxaceae (Yew) Coniferales Gymnospermae
Taxodiaceae (Redwood) Coniferales Gymnospermae
Cycadaceae (Cycad) Cycadales Gymnospermae
Ephedraceae (Joint-fir) Ephedrales Gymnospermae
Ginkgoaceae (Gingko) Ginkgoales Gymnospermae
Equisetaceae (Horsetail) Equisetales (Horsetails) Pteridophyta
Aspleniaceae (Spleenwort) Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Polypodiaceae (Fern) Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Pteridaceae Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Thelypteridaceae Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Isoetaceae (Quillwort) Isoetales (Quillworts) Pteridophyta
Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) Lycopodiales (Clubmosses) Pteridophyta
Ophioglossaceae (Adder's-tongue, Grape fern) Ophioglossales (Succulent Ferns) Pteridophyta
Osmundaceae (Royal fern) Osmundales Pteridophyta
Dennstaedtiaceae Polypodiales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Dryopteridaceae (Wood fern) Polypodiales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Salviniaceae (Water fern) Salviniales Pteridophyta
Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) Sellaginellales (Spikemosses) Lycopodiophyta
Fucaceae Fucales Phaeophyceae-brown algae
Alariaceae (Kelp) Laminariales Phaeophyceae-brown algae
Gigartinaceae Gigartinales Rhodophyta-red algae
Palmariaceae Palmariales Rhodophyceae-red algae
Ulvaceae (Green Algae) Ulvales Ulvophyceae-green algae
Umbilicariaceae Lichens Thallophyta (algae, fungi, lichens)