LV: Attachment

Absent:

Alternate: (as adjective) leaves or flowers borne singly at different levels along a stem includes spiralled parts; or (as preposition) when something occurs between something else, for example stamens alternating with petals; compare opposite.

Appressed: Pressed closely, but not fused; e.g. leaves against a stem.

Basal: at the base, situated or attached at the base.

Clasping: having the lower edges of a leaf blade partly surrounding the stem.

Colleter: a multicellular, glandular hair that usually produces a mucilaginous substance and is located on sepals, stipules, or petioles, or on nearby parts of stems; commonly found on plants in the order Gentianales.

Deciduous: falling seasonally, for instance bark, leaves, petals; compare persistent.

Decussate: opposite, with successive pairs borne at right angles to the last; generally applied to the arrangement of leaves.

Drooping: erect or spreading at the base, then bending downwards

Evergreen: not deciduous, having leaves all the year round.

Exstipulate: without stipules.

Marcescent: withering but still persistent as with petals and sepals or the basal leaves of some plants.

Opposite: (as adjective) leaves or flowers borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the axis; or (as verb) when something occurs on the same radius as something else, for example anthers opposite sepals; compare alternate.

Persistent: remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling, for instance sepals not falling after flowering, flower parts remaining through maturity of fruit; compare deciduous, caducous.

Petiole: the stalk of a leaf.

Pulvinus: a swelling at the base of a leaf or leaflet stalk, often glandular or responsive to touch.

Rosette: when parts are not whorled or opposite but appear so, due to the contractions of internodes, e.g. the petals in a double rose or a basal cluster of leaves (usually close to the ground) in some plants.

Sessile: without a stalk, e.g. of a stigma, when the style is absent.

Sheath: a tubular or rolled part of an organ, e.g. the lower part of the leaf in most grasses.

Stipule: small appendage at the bases of leaves in many dicotyledons.

Tendril: a slender organ (modified e.g. from stem, leaf, leaflet or stipule) used by climbing plants to cling to an object.

Whorl: a ring of organs borne at the same level on an axis, for example leaves, bracts or floral parts.


LV: Shape

Acicular: Slender or needle-shaped.

Cleft: deeply cut, usually more than one-half the distance from the margin to the midrib or base

Deltoid: with the shape of the uppercase Greek letter Δ, i.e. like a more or less equilateral triangle.

Dissected: deeply divided; cut into many segments.

Elliptical: (elliptic) planar, shaped like a flattened circle, symmetrical about both the long and the short axis; about twice as long as broad, tapering equally both to the tip and the base; oval.

Lanceolate: significantly longer than wide and widest below the middle, gradually tapering toward the apex.

Linear: very narrow in relation to its length, with the sides mostly parallel.

Lobe: part of a leaf (or other organ), often rounded, formed by incisions to about halfway to the midrib.

Oblanceolate: a 2-dimensional shape, lanceolate but broadest in the upper third; cf. lanceolate.

Oblong: length a few times greater than width, with sides almost parallel and ends rounded.

Obovate: of a leaf, a 2-dimensional shape of which the length is about 1.5 times the width, and widest above the centre.

Oval: see elliptical.

Ovate: shaped like a section through the long-axis of an egg and attached by the wider end.

Palmate: a compound palmate leaf has leaflets that radiate from a central point (usually at the top of a petiole).

Parted: lobed or cut in over half-way and often very close to the base or midrib

Pinnate: a compound leaf with leaflets arranged on each side of a common petiole or axis; also applied to how the lateral veins are arranged in relation to the main vein.

Reflexed: bent sharply back or down.

Reniform: kidney-shaped.

Tubular: with the form of a tube or cylinder.

Scale: 1. a reduced or rudimentary leaf, for example around a dormant bud. 2. a flattened epidermal outgrowth, such as those commonly found on the leaves and rhizomes of ferns.

Simple: undivided, for instance a leaf not divided into leaflets (note, however, that a simple leaf may be entire, toothed or lobed) or an unbranched hair or inflorescence.

Spatulate: (spathulate) spoon-shaped; broad at the tip with a narrowed projection extending to the base.

Whole: See Simple.


LV: Edge

Crenate: with blunt or rounded teeth, scalloped.

Dissected: deeply divided; cut into many segments.

Entire: 1. not divided. 2. (of a margin) having a smooth margin, not lobed or toothed (it may be wavy or scalloped).

Fibrous:

Involute: rolled inwards, for example when the margins of a leaf are rolled towards the adaxial (usually upper) surface; compare revolute.

Repand: with an undulating margin, less strongly wavy than 'sinuate'.

Revolute: rolled under (downwards or backwards), for example when the edges of leaves are rolled under towards the midrib; compare involute.

Serrate: toothed with asymmetrical teeth pointing forward; like the cutting edge of a saw.

Spine: (adjective spinose) a stiff, sharp structure, formed by the modification of a plant organ that contains vascular tissue; e.g. a lateral branch or a stipule; includes thorns.

Sinuate: with deep, wave-like depressions along the margins, but more or less flat; compare undulate.

Thorn: a sharp, stiff point, usually a modified stem, that cannot be detached without tearing the subtending tissue; a spine; cf. prickle.

Toothed: with a more or less regularly incised margin.


LV: Apex/Base

Acuminate: Tapering gradually to a point.

Acute: Sharply pointed; converging edges making an angle of less than 90°; compare obtuse.

Apex: (plural apices) The tip; the point furthest from the point of attachment.

Auriculate: (auricle) Ear-shaped lobe.

Cordate: heart-shaped, with the notch lowermost; of the base of a leaf, like the notched part of a heart.

Cuneate: wedge-shaped; with straight sides converging at base.

Lobe: part of a leaf (or other organ), often rounded, formed by incisions to about halfway to the midrib.

Mucronate: (mucro) a sharp, short point, generally at the tip of a leaf or the tip of the midrib of a compound leaf. Diminutive: mucronule.

Obtuse: blunt or rounded at the tip or apex; converging edges making an angle of more than 90°; compare acute.

Rounded:

Truncate: cut off squarely; with an abruptly transverse end.


LV: Size/Surface

Arcuate: arching or curved like a bow.

Aromatic:

Bladder-like: thin-walled and inflated

Coriaceous: leathery; stiff and tough, but somewhat flexible.

Fibrous:

Fleshy: See Succulent

Gall: an abnormal growth on a plant that is caused by insects

Glabrous: without surface ornamentation such as hairs, scales or bristles; (in lichenology) having no indumentum.

Glandular: (gland) a secretory structure within or on the surface of a plant; (loosely) a smooth, usually shining, bead-like outgrowth.

Glaucous: with a whitish bloom, blue-green in colour; e.g. the surface of the young leaves of many eucalypts.

Insectivorous: catching, and drawing nutriment from, insects.

Lepidote: covered with small scales.

Palmate: leaf with veins radiating out from a central point (usually at the top of a petiole), resembling spread out fingers pointing away from the palm.

Pubescent: downy; covered with short, soft, erect hairs.

Revolute: rolled under (downwards or backwards), for example when the edges of leaves are rolled under towards the midrib; compare involute.

Rugose: wrinkled or bumpy.

Tomentose: (tomentum) a dense covering of short, matted hairs.

Scabrous: (scabrid) rough to the touch with short hard emergences or hairs.

Succulent: juicy, fleshy; a plant with a fleshy habit.

Venation: the arrangement of veins in a leaf.



FLOWERS

FL: Petals/Sepals

Actinomorphic: regular; radially symmetrical; may be bisected into similar halves in at least two planes. Generally applies to flowers in which the perianth segments within each whorl are alike in size and shape; compare irregular, regular, zygomorphic.

Acute: Sharply pointed; converging edges making an angle of less than 90°; compare obtuse.

Apetalous: Without petals.

Banner: the upper petal of a pea flower.

Bilabiate: having two lips; e.g. the form of the petals in many irregular flowers.

Bract: modified leaf associated with flower or inflorescence, differing in shape, size or colour from other leaves (and without an axillary bud).

Cleft: Deeply cut, usually more than one-half the distance from the margin to the midrib or base.

Connate: fused to another organ (or organs) of the same kind; e.g. petals in a floral tube; cf. adnate.

Contorted: twisted out of the normal shape.

Coriaceous: leathery; stiff and tough, but somewhat flexible.

Corona: (adjective: coronate) literally, crown;1. in flowering plants, ring of structures that may be united in a tube, arising from the corolla or perianth of a flower and standing between the perianth lobes and the stamens. The trumpet of a daffodil is a corona. 2. in grasses, a hardened ring of tissue surmounting the lemma in some species.

Disk: (disc) a plate or ring of structures derived from the receptacle, and occurring between whorls of floral parts: in daisies, the central part of capitulum, hence disk flowers or florets.

Emarginate: notched at apex (notch usually broad and shallow).

Erose: with the margin irregular as though nibbled or worn away.

Fleshy: See Succulent

Floret: literally a small flower, but usually refers to the individual true flowers clustered within an inflorescence, particularly in inflorescences of the daisy and grass families.

Imbricate: overlapping each other; of perianth parts, edges overlapping in the bud (the convoluted arrangement is a special form of imbrication).

Indistinguishable:

Inflated: swollen, like a bladder.

Inflexed: bent sharply upwards or forwards; compare deflexed.

Irregular: cannot be divided into two equal halves through any vertical plane; compare zygomorphic, actinomorphic, regular.

Keel: (adj. keeled), a prominent longitudinal ridge like the keel of a boat, e.g. the structure of the corolla formed by the fusion of the lower edge of the two abaxial anterior petals of a flower in the Fabaceae.

Lobe: part of a leaf (or other organ), often rounded, formed by incisions to about halfway to the midrib.

Parts:

Petal: in a flower, one of the segments or divisions of the inner whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs, usually soft and conspicuously coloured; compare sepal.

Plumose: like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a main axis.

Ray: 1. zygomorphic (ligulate) flowers in a radiate flowerhead, that is, ray-florets/flowers, for example Asteraceae. 2. each of the branches of an umbel.

Reflexed: bent sharply back or down.

Regular: see actinomorphic.

Sepal: in a flower, one of the segments or divisions of the outer whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs, usually green; compare petal.

Separate:

Succulent: juicy, fleshy; a plant with a fleshy habit.

Sympetalous: with united (connate or fused) petals.

Truncate: cut off squarely; with an abruptly transverse end.

Tubular: with the form of a tube or cylinder.

United: describes petals that are fused together

Urceolate: urn-shaped.

Wing: one of the two lateral petals of a flower of subfamily Faboideae of family Fabaceae, located between the adaxial standard (banner) petal and the two abaxial keel petals.

Zygomorphic: bilaterally symmetrical; symmetrical about one vertical plane only; applies to flowers in which the perianth segments within each whorl vary in size and shape; compare actinomorphic, irregular.


FL: Color

Mottled:


FL: Arrangement

Axillary: Borne in or arising from the axil of a leaf.

Basal: at the base, situated or attached at the base.

Beak: a prominent pointed terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit. adj. beaked

Bract: modified leaf associated with flower or inflorescence, differing in shape, size or colour from other leaves (and without an axillary bud).

Bristle: (adjective: bristly) straight stiff hair (smooth or with minute teeth).

Burr: loosely, a prickly fruit; a rough or prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts or bracts.

Capitulum: a dense cluster of sessile, or almost sessile, flowers or florets; a head.

Catkin: a spike, usually pendulous, in which the mostly small flowers are unisexual and without a conspicuous perianth; e.g. willows, poplars, oaks and casuarinas. The individual flowers often have scaly bracts; they are generally wind-pollinated. The catkins are usually shed as a unit.

Clustered:

Compound: composed of several parts, for instance a leaf with leaflets, a gynoecium with several carpels, or an inflorescence made up of smaller inflorescences.

Congested:

Conical:

Cyme: (adjective cymose) inflorescence in which the main axis and all lateral branches end in a flower (each lateral may be repeatedly branched).

Determinate: limited, usually in growth.

Dioecious: of plant, when male and female reproductive structures develop on different individuals; of infloresence, male and female flowers in separate infloresences; cf. monoecious.

Drooping: erect or spreading at the base, then bending downwards.

Fascicle: (adjective fasciculate) cluster, e.g. a tuft of leaves all arising from the same node.

Globose: (globular) spherical.

Head: see capitulum

Helicoid: coiled; of a cymose inflorescence, when the branching is repeatedly on the same side (the apex is often recurved); cf. scorpioid.

Imbricate: overlapping each other

Indeterminate: unlimited, usually in growth.

Inflorescence: several flowers closely grouped together to form an efficient structured unit; the grouping or arrangement of flowers on a plant.

Monoecious: of vascular plants, where the male and female reproductive structures are in separate flowers but on the same plant; of inflorescence, including unisexual flowers of both sexes; cf. dioecious.

Nodding: hanging down

Ovoid: egg-shaped, with wider portion at base; 3-dimensional object, ovate in all sections through long-axis.

Paired:

Panicle: (adjective paniculate) a compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these.

Pappus: in daisy florets, a tuft or ring of hairs or scales borne above the ovary and outside the corolla (representing the missing calyx); a tuft of hairs on a fruit.

Peduncle: (adjective pedunculate) the stalk of an inflorescence.

Pendulous: hanging, for example an ovule attached to a placenta on the top of the ovary; compare suspended.

Raceme: (adjective racemose) an indeterminate inflorescence in which the main axis produces a series of flowers on lateral stalks, the oldest at the base and the youngest at the top; cf. spike.

Resupinate: In botany, having an inverted position; in lichenology referring to either having or being a fruiting body that lays flat on the substrate, with the hymenium either over the whole surface or at the periphery.

Scapose: having the floral axis more or less erect with a few leaves or devoid of leaves; consisting of a scape (a stem-like flowering stalk of a plant with radical leaves).

Scarious: dry and membranous.

Scorpioid: of a cymose inflorescence, when it branches alternately on one side and then the other; cf. helicoid.

Sessile: without a stalk, e.g. of a stigma, when the style is absent.

Solitary: single, of flowers that grow one plant per year, one in each axil, or widely separated on the plant; not grouped in an inflorescence.

Spherical: See Globose.

Spike: (adjective spicate) an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are without stalks; cf. raceme.

Terminal: situated at the tip or apex.

Translucent:

Umbel: (adjective umbellate) a racemose inflorescence in which all the individual flower stalks arise in a cluster at the top of the peduncle and are of about equal length; in a simple umbel, each stalk is unbranched and bears only one flower; a cymose umbel is an apparent umbel but its flowers open centrifugally.


FL: Size/Season

Minute:


FL: Stamen/Pistil/Ovary

Adnate: grown or fused to an organ of a different kind, especially along a margin; e.g. a stamen fused to a petal; cf. connate.

Apex: (plural apices) The tip; the point furthest from the point of attachment.

Bisexual: bearing both male and female reproductive organs; usually, flowers with both stamens and carpels; hermaphrodite, monoecious, monoicous. See Perfect.

Half-inferior: of ovary, partly below and partly above the level of attachment of the other floral parts; compare inferior, superior.

Imperfect: describes a flower that has stamens or pistils but not both.

Inferior: of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of other floral parts; compare superior.

Oblanceolate: a 2-dimensional shape, lanceolate but broadest in the upper third; cf. lanceolate.

Ovary: the basal portion of a carpel or group of fused carpels, enclosing the ovule(s).

Perfect: of a flower, when bisexual.

Pistil: 1. a single carpel when the carpels are free. 2. a group of carpels when the carpels are united by the fusion of their walls.

Plumose: like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a main axis.

Pubescent: downy; covered with short, soft, erect hairs.

Tomentose: (tomentum) a dense covering of short, matted hairs.

Stamen: (adjective staminate) male organ of a flower, consisting (usually) of a stalk (filament) and a pollen-bearing portion (anther).

Style: an elongated part of a carpel, or group of fused carpels, between the ovary and the stigma.

Superior: of an ovary, borne above the level of attachment of the other floral parts, or above the base of a floral tube (that is, one that is free from the ovary and bears the perianth and stamens); compare inferior, half-inferior.


FRUIT

FR: Type

Achene: a dry 1-seeded indehiscent fruit; e.g. members of the Ranunculaceae.

Areole: (from areola) A space between the threads of a net; e.g. that part of a leaf surface defined by each of the elements of a vein network; as with cacti, the area between the veinlets of a leaf or the region of a cactus bearing the flowers and/or spines. In lichenology, an areole is a polygonal piece of a #thallus surface when a crustose lichen it broken up like old dried and cracked paint, or like the polygonal "islands" of dried mud in a dry lake bed.

Berry: an indehiscent fruit, with the seeds immersed in the pulp, for instance tomato.

Burr: loosely, a prickly fruit; a rough or prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts or bracts.

Capitulum: a dense cluster of sessile, or almost sessile, flowers or florets; a head.

Capsule: a dry fruit formed from two of more united carpels and dehiscing when ripe (usually by splitting into pieces or opening at summit by teeth or pores).

Chamber: cavity of an ovary.

Circumsessile: dehiscing along a transverse circular line around the fruit or anther, so that the top separates or falls off like a lid.

Comose: a tuft of hairs, often at the tip of seeds.

Cupule: a cup-shaped structure composed of coalescent bracts, such as the cup of an acorn.

Dehiscent: breaking open at maturity to release contents. Generally refers to the release of seed from some fruits; also pollen from anthers.

Drupe: a succulent fruit formed from one carpel; the single seed is enclosed by a stony layer of the fruit wall; kernel; e.g. peaches, olives and the fruit of Nitraria billardieri.

Dry:

Follicle: a dry fruit formed from one carpel, splitting along a single suture, to which the seeds are attached; cf. pod (of legume).

Globose: (globular) spherical.

Head: see capitulum

Legume: 1. a fruit characteristic of the families Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Fabaceae, formed from one carpel and either dehiscent along both sides, or indehiscent. 2. a crop species in the family Fabaceae. 3. a plant belonging to the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family).

Loculicidal: of a fruit, when it dehisces through the centres of loculi; cf. septicidal.

Nutlet: a small nut, one of the lobes or sections of the mature ovary of some members of the Boraginaceae, Verbenaceae, and Lamiaceae.

Ovoid: egg-shaped, with wider portion at base; 3-dimensional object, ovate in all sections through long-axis.

Plumose: like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a main axis.

Reniform: kidney-shaped.

Samara: a dry, indehiscent fruit with its wall expanded into a wing.

Schizocarp: a dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into individual carpels (mericarps) when ripe.

Septicidal: of a fruit, when it dehisces along the partitions between loculi; cf. loculicidal.

Spine: (adjective spinose) a stiff, sharp structure, formed by the modification of a plant organ that contains vascular tissue; e.g. a lateral branch or a stipule; includes thorns.

Suture: a junction or seam of union. (see fissure, commissure)

Tuberculate: covered in tubercles; warty.

Valve: a portion of an organ that fragments or splits open, for example the teeth-like portions of a pericarp in a split (dehisced) capsule or pod when ripe.


FR: Color

Glaucous: with a whitish bloom, blue-green in colour; e.g. the surface of the young leaves of many eucalypts.


FR: Size/Season


STEM

ST: Type/Size/Growth

Assurgent: ascending at an angle

Creeping:

Decumbent: with branches growing horizontally on the ground, but turned up at the ends.

Diffuse: looosely branching or spreading

Erect: upright, more or less perpendicular to the ground or point of attachment.

Herb: a vascular plant that does not develop a woody stem; e.g. a violet.

Mucilaginous: slimy and moist.

Natant: floating in water

Procumbent: lying flat or trailing but not rooting at the nodes.

Prostrate: lying flat on the ground.

Repent: creeping.

Runners: see stolon.

Scandent: climbing, by whatever means.

Shrub: a woody perennial plant without a single main trunk, branching freely, and smaller than a tree.

Stolon: slender, prostrate or trailing stem, producing roots and sometimes erect shoots at its nodes. See also rhizome.

Submerged:

Tree: a woody plant, usually with a single distinct trunk and generally more than 5 m tall.

Vine: 1. Vitis. 2. Scandent plants climbing by means of trailing or twining stem or runner. 3. Such a stem or runner


ST: Surface/Color

Angled: sided, as in the shape of stems or fruits

Bark: the protective external layer of tissue on the stems and roots of trees and shrubs; includes all of the living and non-living tissue external to the cambium.

Exfoliating: peeling off in thin layers or flakes

Fibrous:

Fishhook:

Flattened:

Fleshy: See Succulent

Furrowed:

Glaucous: with a whitish bloom, blue-green in colour; e.g. the surface of the young leaves of many eucalypts.

Globose: (globular) spherical. See also subglobose.

Grooved:

Hispid: having long erect rigid hairs or bristles, harsh to touch.

Hollow:

Joint: (jointed) a node or junction of two parts; articulation.

Lenticel: typically lens shaped (lenticular) porous tissue in bark with large intercellular spaces that allows direct exchange of gases between the internal tissues and atmosphere through the bark.

Node: the part of a stem where leaves or branches arise.

Pith: the central region of a stem, inside the vascular cylinder; the spongy parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.

Plated:

Prickle: (adjective: prickly) hard, pointed outgrowth from the surface of a plant (involving several layers of cells but not containing a vein); sharp outgrowth from the bark, detachable without tearing wood; cf. thorn.

Pubescent: downy; covered with short, soft, erect hairs.

Sap:

Scabrous: (scabrid) rough to the touch with short hard emergences or hairs.

Smooth:

Spine: (adjective spinose) a stiff, sharp structure, formed by the modification of a plant organ that contains vascular tissue; e.g. a lateral branch or a stipule; includes thorns.

Stellate: star-shaped, for example a type of hair.

Succulent: juicy, fleshy; a plant with a fleshy habit.

Swollen:

Tendril: a slender organ (modified e.g. from stem, leaf, leaflet or stipule) used by climbing plants to cling to an object.

Thorn: a sharp, stiff point, usually a modified stem, that cannot be detached without tearing the subtending tissue; a spine; cf. prickle.

Tomentose: (tomentum) a dense covering of short, matted hairs.

Tubercle: a small wart-like outgrowth.

Tuberculate: covered in tubercles; warty.

Warty: a surface covered with small round protuberances, especially in fruit, leaves, twigs and bark, see tuberculate.

Wing: a thin flange of tissue extending beyond the normal outline of a structure, e.g. on the column of some orchids, on stems, on petioles.

Zig zag:

ST: Buds/Roots

Acute: Sharply pointed; converging edges making an angle of less than 90°; compare obtuse.

Apex: (plural apices) The tip; the point furthest from the point of attachment.

Appressed: pressed closely, but not fused; e.g. leaves against a stem.

Bud: a developing leaf, stem or flower.

Bulb: (adj. bulbiferous), thick storage organ, usually underground, consisting of a stem and leaf bases (the inner ones fleshy).

Clustered:

Collateral: same side of twig

Corm: fleshy, swollen stem base, usually underground, storing food reserves, with buds naked or covered by very thin scales; a type of rootstock. Adjectives derived from "corm" include "cormose" and "cormous".

Fleshy: See Succulent

Globose: (globular) spherical.

Imbricate: overlapping each other; of perianth parts, edges overlapping in the bud (the convoluted arrangement is a special form of imbrication).

Mucronate: (mucro) a sharp, short point, generally at the tip of a leaf or the tip of the midrib of a compound leaf. Diminutive: mucronule.

Naked: Bud scales absent.

Obovate: of a leaf, a 2-dimensional shape of which the length is about 1.5 times the width, and widest above the centre.

Ovoid: egg-shaped, with wider portion at base; 3-dimensional object, ovate in all sections through long-axis.

Persistent: remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling, for instance sepals not falling after flowering, flower parts remaining through maturity of fruit; compare deciduous, caducous.

Pubescent: downy; covered with short, soft, erect hairs.

Rhizome: a perennial underground stem usually growing horizontally.

Root: a unit of a plant's axial system which is usually underground, does not bear leaves, tends to grow downwards, and is typically derived from the radicle of the embryo.

Shallow:

Succulent: juicy, fleshy; a plant with a fleshy habit.

Taproot: the main, descending root of a plant with a single dominant root axis.

Tomentose: (tomentum) a dense covering of short, matted hairs.

Tuber: an underground storage organ formed by the swelling of an underground stem which produces buds and stores food, forming a seasonal perennating organ, for example potato; compare tuberoid.

Valvate: of sepals and petals in bud, which meet edge to edge but do not overlap.


ECOLOGY

EC: Edible

Cooked:

Poisonous:

Raw:

EC: Habitat

Acidophilic:

Aquatic: Plants whose natural habitat is water: living in or on water for all or a substantial part of the organism's life span, generally restricted to fresh or inland waters.

Chaparral: an area characterized by dense, leathery-leaved, evergreen shrubs.

Coastal:

Desert:

Field:

Forest: vegetation dominated by trees with single trunks (including closely arranged trees with or without an understorey of shrubs and herbs).

Grassland: low vegetation dominated by grasses.

Marsh: a waterlogged area; swamp.

Ornamental:

Riparian:

Roadside:

Salt marsh:

Subtropical:

Tropical:

Upland:

Waste places:

Wetland:

Xeric: Pertaining to arid or desert conditions, implying a minimal water supply throughout most of the year (compare mesic)

Xerophyte: a plant generally living in a dry habitat, typically showing xeromorphic or succulent adaptation; a plant able to tolerate long periods of drought; cf. xeromorph.


General terms

Adaxial: The side next to the axis; e.g. the upper surface of a flowering plant leaf.

Androecium: Male parts of flower; the stamens of a flower collectively; cf. gynoecium.

Angiosperms: 'flowering plants'; plants with developing seeds enclosed in an ovary.

Anther: Pollen-bearing part of the stamen.

Asexual: Of reproduction that does not involve the gametes; i.e. vegetative reproduction.

Awn: Fine bristle-like appendage; e.g. terminating or on the back of glumes and/or lemmas of some grass spikelets.

Axil: The upper angle between one part of a plant and another; e.g. the stem and a leaf.

Axis: A line passing through the centre of something; it usually refers to the main stem of a whole plant or inflorescence.

Calyx: (plural calyces) the outer whorl of a flower, usually green; the sepals of one flower collectively.

Caducous: falling off early, for example the sepals of poppies, that fall off when the petals begin to open; compare persistent and fugacious.

Carpel: a female organ borne at the centre of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a style and a stigma. The gynoecium is the collective term for all the carpels of a single flower.

Chlorophyll: a green pigment in chloroplasts, essential for photosynthesis.

Chloroplast: an organelle present in plant cells that contains chlorophyll.

Column: 1. structure extending above ovary and incorporating the style and stamens; gynostemium; e.g. in orchids. 2. in grasses, the lower, stouter, and usually twisted part of an awn, distinct from the slender upper part or bristle.

Commissure: the seam or face by which two carpels adhere.

Complete: describing flowers that contain petals, sepals, pistils and stamens.

Corolla: collective term for the petals of a flower.

Embryo: young plant contained by a seed.

Fertile: capable of producing fruit; of flowers when they produce seed or of anthers containing pollen.

Fertilization: union of male and female gametes.

Filament: 1. stalk of a stamen 2. thread, one or a few cells thick.

Filamentous: consisting of filaments or fibres, hairlike.

Fissure: a split or crack, often referring to fissured bark. also, a line or opening of dehiscence.

Floral tube: tube bearing the perianth and stamens, consisting of tissue derived from the receptacle and/or perianth and/or stamens; hypanthium.

Flower: the sexual reproductive structure of the angiosperms, typically with a gynoecium, androecium, perianth and an axis.

Fruit: seed-bearing structure in angiosperms formed from the ovary, and sometimes associated floral parts, after flowering.

Fugacious: disappearing, falling off, or withering; compare persistent and caducous.

Gamete: (in ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms) a cell or nucleus that fuses with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction.

Gametophyte: plant that bears gametes; in ferns, usually a small but discrete plant very different from the sporophyte (which is normally considered the fern plant); in gymnosperms and angiosperms, a microscopic structure (part of the reproductive apparatus) not recognizable as a discrete plant.

Glumes: bracts subtending the floret(s) of a sedge, or similar plant; in grasses forming the lowermost organs of a spikelet (there are usually 2 but 1 is sometimes reduced; or rarely, both are absent).

Grass: a plant belonging to the family Poaceae.

Gymnosperm: a seed-bearing plant with ovules borne on the surface of a sporophyll; includes, among others, conifers, Ginkgo, Gnetum and cycads.

Gynoecium: female parts of flower; the collective term for the carpels of a flower whether united or free; cf. pistil; androecium.

Hair: a single elongated cell or row of cells borne on the surface of an organ.

Indehiscent: not opening in any definite manner at maturity; usually referring to fruit.

Indumentum: a collective term for a surface covering of any kind of trichomes, e.g. hairs, scales.

Isidium: A warty of club-like structure in some lichens that breaks off and forms new lichens without sexual reproduction. Isidia are dispersed by mechanical means, compared to soredia, which are dispersed by wind.

Leaf: an outgrowth of a stem, usually flat and green; its main function is food manufacture by photosynthesis.

Lemma: the lower of 2 bracts enclosing a grass flower.

Megaspore: the larger of two kinds of spores produced by a heterosporous plant giving rise to the female gametophyte; compare microspore.

Mericarp: one segment of a fruit (a schizocarp) that splits at maturity into units derived from the individual carpels, or a carpel, usually 1-seeded, released by the break-up at maturity of a fruit formed from 2 or more joined carpels.

Mesic: describes a habitat that is generally moist throughout the growing season (compare xeric)

Microspore: the smaller of two kinds of spores produced by a heterosporous plant; compare megaspore.

Midrib: the central, and usually most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ; midvein.

Mycobiont: The fungal component of a lichen (compare to photobiont).

o.: often

Ovule: loosely, the seed before fertilization; a structure in a seed plant within which one or more megaspores are formed (after fertilization it develops into a seed).

Perianth: the collective terms for the calyx and corolla of a flower (generally used when the two are similar).

Pericarp: the wall of a fruit, developed from the ovary wall.

Photobiont: In a lichen, the component that does the photosynthesis, the green algae (Chlorophyta) or blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria). (compare to mycobiont, the fungal component.) Also called the phycobiont.

Photosynthesis: the process by which sugars are made from carbon dioxide and water in cells containing chloroplasts; the chemical energy required from solar energy in the presence of the pigment chlorophyll.

Phycobiont: In a lichen, a synonym for photobiont

Plumule: the part of an embryo that gives rise to the shoot system of a plant; cf. radicle.

Pollen: powdery mass shed from anthers (of angiosperms) or microsporangia (of gymnosperms); the microspores of seed plants; pollen-grains.

Propagule: In lichens, a part of the thallus that has both fungal and algal parts and can break off for vegetative reproduction, e.g., an isidium, phyllidium, phyllocladium, or soredium).

Radical: springing from the root; clustered at base of stem.

Radicle: the part of an embryo giving rise to the root system of a plant; cf. plumule.

Root: a unit of a plant's axial system which is usually underground, does not bear leaves, tends to grow downwards, and is typically derived from the radicle of the embryo.

Runners: see stolon.

s.: sometimes

Scale: 1. a reduced or rudimentary leaf, for example around a dormant bud. 2. a flattened epidermal outgrowth, such as those commonly found on the leaves and rhizomes of ferns.

Sedge: a plant belonging to the family Cyperaceae.

Seed: a ripened ovule, consisting of a protective coat enclosing an embryo and food reserves; a propagating organ formed in the sexual reproductive cycle of gymnosperms and angiosperms (together, the seed plants).

Soralia: In a lichen, the structure that bears soredium for non sexual reproduction.

Soredium: In a lichen, a small groups of algal cells surrounded by fungal filaments that form in soralia, which break off and grow new lichens without sexual reproduction after being dispersed by wind. Compare to an isidium, which breaks off and is dispersed by mechanical means.

Spikelet: a unit of the inflorescence especially in grasses, sedges and some other monocotyledons, consisting of one to many flowers and associated bracts (glumes).

Spore: in non-flowering plants only a simple propagule, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells.

Sporophyll: a modified leaf that bears a sporangium or sporangia, in pteridophytes.

Stalk: the supporting structure of an organ, usually narrower in diameter than the organ.

Stem: the plant axis, either aerial or subterranean, which bears nodes, leaves, branches and flowers.

Stigma: the pollen-receptive surface of a carpel or group of fused carpels, usually sticky; usually a point or small head at the summit of the style.

Stolon: slender, prostrate or trailing stem, producing roots and sometimes erect shoots at its nodes. See also rhizome.

Style: an elongated part of a carpel, or group of fused carpels, between the ovary and the stigma.

Subglobose: Inflated, but less than spherical. See also globose.

Thallus: The "vegetative" part (part other than sexual fruitbodies) of a lichen that has both the fungus (mycobiont) and photobiont; plural thalli

Trichome: in non-filamentous plants, any hair-like outgrowth from epidermis, e.g. a hair or bristle; sometimes restricted to unbranched epidermal outgrowths.

Trunk: the upright large main stem of a tree.

u.: usually

Undulate: wavy and not flat; compare sinuate.

Vein: a strand of vascular tissue; nerve.