Plant Identification Database:
Plant Families

The plant data on this site are a record of Bob Ronnow's field observations
which vary in accuracy and change with experience. For accurate and complete
information please use the links provided for each plant species and family.

Glossary of Botanical Terms



CLASSIFICATION
Characteristics
Family
Order
Class
LV: leaves; FL: flowers; FR: fruit; ST: stem, roots; EC: ecology
Acanthaceae (Acanthus) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Acanthaceae: LV: opposite, decussate, whole, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: u. 5 petals (2 above, 3 below), united, zygomorphic, u. axillary, 2 or 4 stamens, style long, ovary superior; FR: capsule, 2 valves; ST: u. herb; EC: u. tropical
Aceraceae (Maple) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Aceraceae: LV: opposite, u. lobed, exstipulate, deciduous; FL: 5 parts, actinomorphic, <1", 4-10 stamens, ovary superior; FR: samara (double); ST: tree/shrub; EC: edible (FR raw, ST-inner bark raw, sap cooked)
Agavaceae (Agave) Asparagales Monocotyledonae Agavaceae: LV: u. basal rosette, whole, lanceolate/linear, sessile, u. spiny edge, u. apex acicular, fibrous and/or succulent, veins parallel; FL: 6 parts, green white yellow, raceme/panicle, large, terminal, petals fleshy imbricate, 6 stamens, 1 pistil 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, seeds u. black; ST: herb/shrub; EC: u. arid/semiarid
Aizoaceae (Carpetweed; Fig-marigold); Ice-plant) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Aizoaceae: LV: simple, u. opposite or whorled, entire, u. fleshy; FL: actinomorphic, apetalous, 5-8 sepals, numerous stamens; FR: u. capsule; ST: herb; EC:
Alariaceae (Kelp) Laminariales Phaeophyceae-brown algae
Alismataceae (Arrowhead) Alismatales Monocotyledonae Alismataceae: LV: u. basal, simple,entire, sheath, parallel venation; FL: 3 petals, 3 sepals, u. white/yellow, ovary superior; FR: achene, head of nutlets; ST: u. herb, milky sap, rhizome o. tubers; EC: aquatic
Amaranthaceae (Amaranth) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Amaranthaceae: LV: simple, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: u. 5 parts, minute, axillary, white pink red, congested inflorescence, apetalous, 4-5 sepals imbricate, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. circumscissile capsule; ST: herb/shrub, u. stem red; EC:
Amaryllidaceae [Daffodil]
      Alliaceae [Onion]
      Amaryllidaceae [Daffodil]
Asparagales Monocotyledonae Alliaceae: LV: simple, entire, basal, u. linear, sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, u. actinomorphic, umbel, 3 petals, 3 sepals, imbricate, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, bulb; EC: u. roots edible
Amaryllidaceae: LV: simple, entire, basal, u. linear, sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, u. actinomorphic, umbellate, 3 petals, 3 sepals, imbricate, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate, ovary inferior; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, bulb; EC:
Anacardiaceae (Cashew) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Anacardiaceae: LV: alternate, u. pinnate or trifoliate, u. exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, white green yellow, cymose, determinate, actinomorphic, 5 or 10 stamens, ovary superior; FR: drupe, red or white; ST: tree shrub vine, u. resinous; EC:
Annonaceae (Custard-apple) Magnoliales Dicotyledonae Annonaceae: LV: evergreen, alternate, simple, entire, pinnate venation; FL: regular; 3 or 6 petals, 3 sepals, u. perfect, ovary superior; FR: berry; ST: tree/shrub/vine, buds naked; EC: subtropical/tropical
Apocynaceae (Dogbane) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Apocynaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, colleters, simple, entire; FL: actinomorphic, 5 united connate petals, 5 united sepals, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. 2-follicle , o. comose seeds; ST: milky sap; EC: u. poisonous, u. tropical
Aquifoliaceae (Holly) Celastrales Dicotyledonae Aquifoliaceae: LV: alternate, simple, o. coriaceous; FL: u. 4 parts, u. axillary, white/greenish, small, actinomorphic, ovary superior; FR: berry/drupe, red/purple; ST: tree/shrub; EC: acidophilic
Araceae (Arum) Alismatales Monocotyledonae Araceae: LV: u. basal, entire; FL: 6 tepals, u. spathe, spadix, minute, ovary superior; FR: berry; ST: herb/vine; EC: u. wetland
Araliaceae (Ginseng) Apiales Dicotyledonae Araliaceae: LV: alternate or whorled; FL: 5 parts, u. umbel single, <1/2", greenish white, 5 petals separate, 5 sepals, ovary inferior; FR: berry, red/purple; ST: EC: moist soil
Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort; Dutchman's Pipe) Aristolochiales Dicotyledonae Aristolochiaceae: LV: alternate or basal, simple, entire or lobed, o. cordate base; FL: 3 parts, u. axillary, tubular, red, mottled, 0 petals, 3 sepals, ovary u. inferior; FR: capsule; ST: EC: u. tropical, LV/RT edible
Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Asclepiadaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, colleters, simple, entire; FL: actinomorphic, 5 reflexed petals, 5 united sepals, 5-part corona, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. follicle, u. comose seeds; ST: milky sap; EC: u. poisonous, u. tropical
Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
      Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
      Brodiaeoideae (Cluster-lily)
      Hemerocallidaceae [Asphodel]
Asparagales Monocotyledonae Asparagaceae: LV: simple, entire, o. scale-like, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, imbricate, u. inconspicuous, 6 stamens, 1pistel, 3 styles, ovary superior; FR: u. berry, seeds globose; ST: rhizome; EC:
Brodiaeoideae:
Hemerocallidaceae:
LV: u. basal, simple, entire, o. sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, o. spotted, u. actinomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, tuber; EC:
Aspleniaceae (Spleenwort) Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Balsaminaceae (Touch-me-not) Geraniales Dicotyledonae Balsaminaceae: LV: simple, exstipulate; FL: irregular, 5 petals 2 united, sepal spur, resupinate, o. nodding, bisexual, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: herb, u. glabrous, translucent, o. swollen nodes; EC: u. tropical
Berberidaceae (Barberry) Ranunculales Dicotyledonae Berberidaceae: LV: FL: 3 or 6 parts, yellow, ovary superior; FR: berry; ST: EC:
Betulaceae (Birch) Fagales Dicotyledonae Betulaceae: LV: alternate, deciduous, stipulate, simple, serrate, pinnate venation; FL: catkin/spike/fascicle, monoecious, minute, imperfect, 2 styles, ovary inferior; FR: nut/samara; ST: tree/shrub; EC: u. forest
Bignoniaceae (Trumpet-creeper) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Bignoniaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, u. palmate or pinnate, u. tendril, exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, zygomorphic, raceme/panicle, u. large, 5 petals united, bilabiate, u. tubular, u. 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule 2-valved, large; ST: u. vine; EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Boraginaceae (Forget-me-not) Lamiales Dicotyledonae Boraginaceae: LV: u. simple, u. alternate, entire, o. hispid; FL: 5 petals connate, 5 sepals separate hispid, actinomorphic, o. spike/helicoid cyme, terminal, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: schizocarp, 4 nutlets; ST: u. herb, hispid; EC:
Bromeliaceae (Pineapple) Bromeliales Monocotyledonae
Bromeliaceae: LV: simple, alternate, sessile, base o. red/purple, parallel venation; FL: 3 sepals connate, 6 stamens, u. terminal; FR: ST: herb, xerophyte, u. epiphyte; EC: u. tropical
Cabombaceae (Water-shield) Nymphaeales Dicotyledonae Cabombaceae: LV: FL: solitary, perfect, ovary superior; FR: achene; ST: herb; EC: aquatic
Cactaceae (Cactus) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Cactaceae: LV: u. absent; FL: 7+ parts, actinomorphic, u. solitary, stamens numerous, ovary inferior; FR: berry, u. spines; ST: fleshy, succulent, spines, buds spiny & bristly areole, roots shallow; EC: FR u. edible, u. xeric
Callitrichaceae (Water-starwort) Callitrichales Dicotyledonae Callitrichaceae: LV: decussate, u. linear/spatulate; FL: u. solitary, axillary; FR: nutlet; ST: herb, submerged; EC: aquatic
Campanulaceae (Bluebell) [Bellflower, Harebell, Lobelia] Campanulales Dicotyledonae Campanulaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. simple, exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, u. raceme, u. connate, o. blue/white, u. 5 petals, 5 stamens, style apex o. tomentose, ovary inferior; FR: u. capsule; ST: u. herb, milky/watery sap; EC:
Capparaceae (Caper) Brassicales Dicotyledonae Capparaceae: LV: o. palmate; FL: 4 parts, u. raceme, 4 separate petals, 4 separate sepals, stamens long, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule, seeds reniform; ST: EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle)
     Adoxaceae [Viburnum]
     Caprifoliaceae [Honeysuckle]     
Dipsacales Dicotyledonae Adoxaceae: LV: opposite; FL: 5 parts, actinomorphic, determinate, u. 5 stamens; FR: drupe; ST: u. shrub; EC: FR edible raw
Caprifoliaceae: LV: opposite, decussate, simple; FL: 5 parts, zygomprphic, determinate, petals united connate, u. 5 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: ST: u. shrub; EC:
Caryophyllaceae (Pink) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Caryophyllaceae: LV: simple, u. opposite, decussate, u. linear, entire, u. exstipulate; FL: u. 5 parts, actinomorphic, u. white pink, u. terminal, u. 5 separate petals o. emarginate or cleft, 5 sepals, u. 5 or 10 stamens, 2-5 styles & stigmas, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: u. herb, u. swollen nodes; EC:
Celastraceae (Stafftree; Bittersweet) Celastrales Dicotyledonae Celastraceae: LV: simple; FL: u. 5 parts, actinomorphic, axillary, u. greenish white, small, stigma 2-5 lobed; FR: seeds brightly colored; ST: trees/shrubs/vines; EC:
Ceratophyllaceae (Hornwort) Nymphaeales Dicotyledonae Ceratophyllaceae: LV: FL: FR: ST: EC: aquatic
Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Chenopodiaceae: LV: simple, u. alternate, u. succulent; FL: u. 5 parts, green, minute, dense spike-like, apetalous, u. 5 sepals, u. 5 stamens, 2 styles, ovary superior; FR: ST: herb/shrub; EC: LV u. edible, FR u. edible
Cistaceae (Rockrose) Violales Dicotyledonae Cistaceae: LV: simple, entire, o. revolute, u. opposite; FL: 5 petals o. imbricate, o. yellow; FR: capsule; ST: herb/subshrub, u. pubescent; EC:
Clethraceae (White-alder) Ericales Dicotyledonae Clethraceae: LV: alternate, simple, petiole short; FL: 5 petals 5 sepals, actinomorphic, terminal raceme/panicle, u. white/pink, 10 stamens, stigma 3-lobed, ovary superior, ; FR: capsule 3-valved; ST: tree/shrub, stellate pubescence; EC
Commelinaceae (Spiderwort) Commelinales Monocotyledonae Commelinaceae: LV: simple, entire, sheath, parallel venation; FL: 3 petals, 3 sepals, 6 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: herb, succulent, mucilaginous; EC
Compositae (Daisy)
     
Ambrosieae [Ragweed]
     Anthemideae [Chamomile]
     Astereae [Aster]

     Cichorieae [Dandelion]
     Coreopsideae [Tickseed]
     Cynareae [Artichoke]
     Eupatorieae [Boneset]
     Helenieae [Sneezeweed]
     Heliantheae [Sunflower]
     Inuleae [Everlasting]
     Senecioneae [Groundsel]
     Tageteae [Marigold]
     Vernonieae [Ironweed]
Asterales Dicotyledonae Ambrosieae: LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ parts, head, disk only, minute florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Anthemideae:
LV: alternate, pinnate, aromatic; FL: 7+ parts, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts scarious/translucent, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Astereae:
LV: alternate; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Cichorieae: LV: alternate/basal; FL: 7+ florets, head, ray only, petals imbricate apex truncate u. serrate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub, milky juice; EC: LV u. edible raw, RT o. edible raw
Coreopsideae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Cynareae:
LV: alternate, u. pinnate, spiny; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts o. imbricate conical/spherical o. spines, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Eupatorieae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk only, minute florets, not u. yellow, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, stigma oblanceolate, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Helenieae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Heliantheae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Inuleae:
LV: u. alternate, entire, gray-green; FL: 7+ florets, head, ray, imbricate bracts scarious/translucent, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Senecioneae:
LV: u. alternate/basal; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, base white silky pappus, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Tageteae:
LV: u. opposite; FL: 7+ florets, head, disk and/or ray, minute disk florets, indeterminate, imbricate bracts, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Vernonieae:
LV: u. alternate; FL: 7+ florets, head, ray only, not yellow, imbricate bracts, stigma long threadlike pubescent, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub; EC:
Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory) Solanales Dicotyledonae Convolvulaceae: LV: alternate; FL: 5 sympetalous petals, 5 separate sepals, actinomorphic, funnelform or salverform, o. large, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR:u. capsule; ST: u. vine, u. milky sap; EC:
Cornaceae (Dogwood) Cornales Dicotyledonae Cornaceae: LV: u. opposite, simple, u. entire, u. arcuate venation; FL: u. 4 parts, u. white, 4 petals, o. 4 petaloid bracts, 4 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: drupe/berry; ST: tree/shrub/woody plant; EC:
Crassulaceae (Sedum) [Stonecrop] Rosales Dicotyledonae Crassulaceae: LV: fleshy; FL: ovary superior; FR: ; ST: herb, succulent; EC:
Crossosomataceae (Crossosoma) Crossosomatales Dicotyledonae Crossosomataceae: LV: u. alternate, deciduous; FL: white, imbricate; FR: follicle; ST: shrub, spines; EC: xerophyte
Cruciferae (Mustard) [Brassicaceae] Brassicales Dicotyledonae Cruciferae: LV: alternate a/o basal; FL: 4 petals, 4 sepals, raceme or cyme, indeterminate, terminal, u. <1", petals separate, sepals separate, u. 6 stamens (4t,2s), ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: herb; EC: edible (LV raw, FR raw)
Cucurbitaceae (Cucumber/Gourd) Violales Dicotyledonae Cucurbitaceae: LV: alternate, u. palmately lobed, exstipulate; FL: 5 petals sympetalous, 5 sepals separate, funnelform, actinomorphic, imperfect, ovary inferior; FR: o. pepe, seeds large, tendrils; ST: vine, o. scabrous; EC:
Cupressaceae (Cypress) Coniferales Gymnospermae Cupressaceae: LV: scale-like, evergreen; FL: ; FR: cone; ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Cycadaceae (Cycad) Cycadales Gymnospermae Cycadaceae: LV: pinnate, large; FL: strobile, u. terminal, dioecious; FR: cone; ST: tree, unbranched; EC:
Cyperaceae (Sedge)
Cyperales Monocotyledonae Cyperaceae: LV: simple, entire, linear, parallel venation, basal sheath closed; FL: scapose, spicate, bracts; FR: achene; ST: herb, 3-angled; EC: u. wet
Dennstaedtiaceae Polypodiales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Diapensiaceae (Diapensia) Diapensiales Dicotyledonae Diapensiaceae: LV: alternate, stipulate; FL: 5 parts; FR: capsule; ST: subshrub/herb; EC:
Dipsacaceae (Teasel) Dipsacales Dicotyledonae Dipsacaceae: LV: u. opposite, simple; FL: head, tubular, zygomotphic, 4-5 united petals, 5 sepals, spiny bract, 4 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: herb/subshrub; EC:
Droseraceae (Sundew) Nepenthales Dicotyledonae Droseraceae: LV: basal rosette, spatulate, pubescent-glandular, insectivorous; FL: 5 petals separate, 5 sepals, o. scapose, indeterminate, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule ST: u. herb; EC: wetland
Dryopteridaceae (Wood fern) Polypodiales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Ebenaceae (Ebony) Ericales Dicotyledonae Ebenaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. simple, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: connate, o. urceolate, u. coriaceous, actinomorphic, axillary, u. dioecious, ovary superior; FR: berry, orange/red/black; ST: tree/shrub; EC: u. tropical
Elaeagnaceae (Oleaster) Rhamnales Dicotyledonae Elaeagnaceae: LV: simple, entire, exstipulate; FL: 4 parts, 0 petals, 4 sepals united tubular or cup-shaped; FR: drupe enclosing achene, gray or red-orange; ST: shrub/tree, twig scales gold-brown; EC: o. xerophytic
Elatinaceae (Waterwort) Malpighiales Dicotyledonae Elatinaceae: LV: simple; FL: small, axillary, perfect; FR: capsule; ST: herb, o. creeping; EC: aquatic
Empetraceae (Crowberry) Ericales Dicotyledonae Empetraceae: LV: alternate, crowded, evergreen; FL: u. dioecious, inconspicuous; FR: berry; ST: shrub, creeping; EC:
Ephedraceae (Joint-fir) Ephedrales Gymnospermae
Equisetaceae (Horsetail) Equisetales (Horsetails) Pteridophyta
Ericaceae (Heath)
     Rhododendroideae [Rhododendron]
     Vaccinioideae [Blueberry]
Ericales Dicotyledonae Rhododendroideae: LV: simple; FL: petals united, sepals united, long style, spheric stigma, ovary superior; FR: septicidal capsule; ST: shrub/tree; EC: u. poisonous
Vaccinioideae:
LV: simple; FL: petals united, sepals united, pendulous, u. urceolate, long style, spheric stigma, ovary inferior; FR: loculicidal capsule or berry; ST: shrub/vine/tree; EC: FR u. edible
Eriocaulaceae (Pipewort) Poales Monocotyledonae
Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) Euphorbiales Dicotyledonae Euphorbiaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. stipulate; FL: o. indistinguishable, actinomorphic, petals 5 or u. absent, sepals 5 or s. absent, o. colorful bracts, imperfect, overy superior; FR: u. schizocarp capsule, s. drupe; ST: o. succulent, milky sap; EC: u. poisonous
Fagaceae (Beech/Oak) Fagales Dicotyledonae Fagaceae: LV: alternate, simple, o. lobed, coriaceous; FL: 0 petals, axillary, monoecious, minute, imperfect, ovary inferior; FR: nut; ST: tree/shrub; EC: u. forest
Fouquieriaceae (Ocotillo) Violales Dicotyledonae
Fucaceae Fucales Phaeophyceae-brown algae
Fumariaceae (Bleeding heart) Papaverales Dicotyledonae
Garryaceae (Silk Tassel) Cornales Dicotyledonae Garryaceae: LV: opposite, simple, decussate, entire, evergreen, coriaceous; FL: u. catkin, axillary; FR: berry; ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Gentianaceae (Gentian) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Gentianaceae: LV: u. opposite, decussate, sessile, simple, entire; FL: actinomorphic, 4-5 united petals, 4-5 united sepals, u. perfect, 4-5 stamens, 2 -lobed stigma, ovary superior; FR: u. septicidal capsule; ST: u. herb, stem winged; EC:
Geraniaceae (Geranium) Geraniales Dicotyledonae Geraniaceae: LV: u. simple, o. lobed/cleft, stipulate, aromatic; FL: regular, 5 petals o. emarginate, 5 sepals separate, o. red/blue, bisexual, 10/15 stamens 5-part stigma, ovary superior; FR: beaked schizocarp; ST: herb/shrub, pubescent; EC:
Gigartinaceae Gigartinales Rhodophyta-red algae
Ginkgoaceae (Gingko) Ginkgoales Gymnospermae

Gramineae (Grass) [Poaceae]
      Agrostideae [Timothy]
      Andropogoneae [Sorghum]
      Aveneae [Oat]
      Chlorideae [Grama]
      Festuceae [Fescue]
      Hordeae [Barley]
      Oryzeae [Rice]
      Paniceae [Crabgrass]
      Phalarideae [Canary Grass]
      Tripsaceae [Corn]

Cyperales Monocotyledonae Agrostideae: LV: FL: 1 perfect floret, glume well developed, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Andropogoneae:
LV: FL: 2 florets per spikelet, glumes thicker than lemma, spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Aveneae:
LV: FL: 2+ perfect florets, glumes as long or longer than lemma, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Chlorideae:
LV: FL: u. 1 perfect floret, unilateral spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Festuceae:
LV: FL: 2+ perfect florets, u. glumes shorter than lemma, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Hordeae:
LV: FL: u. 2+ perfect florets, terminal bilateral spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Oryzeae:
LV: FL: 1 perfect floret, glumes reduced, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Paniceae:
LV: FL: u. 2 florets per spikelet, glumes thinner than lemma, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Phalarideae:
LV: FL: 1 perfect floret, reduced florets below, panicle; FR: ST: EC:
Tripsaceae:
LV: FL: 2 florets per spikelet, glumes thicker than lemma, spike or spicate raceme; FR: ST: EC:
Grossulariaceae (Currant) Rosales Dicotyledonae
Guttiferae (St. Johnswort)  [Clusiaceae] Theales Dicotyledonae
Haloragaceae (Water-milfoil) Haloragales Dicotyledonae Haloragaceae: LV: dissected; FL: 4 sepals separate, greenish, imperfect, ovary inferior; FR: nutlet or drupe; ST: u. herb; EC: aquatic
Hamamelidaceae (Witch-hazel) Hamamelidales Dicotyledonae Hamamelidaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. stipulate, simple, s. lobed, u. serrate; FL: 4-5 petals, 4-5 sepals basally connate, 4 stamens, 2 styles, ovary u. half-inferior; FR: capsule (2-chambered), bony seeds; ST: tree/shrub, o. pubescent; EC:
Hippocastanaceae (Buckeye) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Hippocastanaceae: LV: opposite, palmately compound, 3-9 obovate leaflets, exstipulate; FL: 4-5 parts, panicle/raceme, zygomorphic, large, sepals connate tubular, u. 5-8 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule, leathery spiny; ST: tree/shrub, lenticels, buds large, sticky, brown/black ; EC:
Hydrangeaceae (Hydrangea) Rosales Dicotyledonae
Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharitales Monocotyledonae
Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf) Solanales Dicotyledonae LV: u. alternate; FL: 5 united petals, 5 united sepals, u. actinomorphic, perfect, 5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: stem, roots; EC: ecology
Iridaceae (Iris) Liliales Monocotyledonae Iridaceae: LV: simple, entire, u. basal, linear lanceolate, sheath, parallel vein; FL: 6 parts, connate, tubular, 2 papery bracts, o. scapose, u. large, 3 stamens,1 pistil, 3 styles, ovary inferior; FR: 3-valved capsule; ST: herb; EC:
Isoetaceae (Quillwort) Isoetales (Quillworts) Pteridophyta
Juglandaceae (Walnut) Juglandales Dicotyledonae Juglandaceae: LV: altrnate, pinnately compound, serrate, glandular below; FL: 0 petals 4 sepals, staminate catkin, carpellate spike or solitary, minute, late spring, monoecious, imperfect, 2 styles, 2 stigmas, ovary inferior; FR: nut; ST: u. tree, large leaf scars; EC: FR edible
Juncaceae (Rush) Juncales Monocotyledonae
Juncaginaceae (Arrow-grass) Alismatales Monocotyledonae
Labiatae (Mint) [Lamiaceae] Lamiales Dicotyledonae Labiatae: LV: u. opposite & decussate, u. simple, u. serrate, u. aromatic, pinnate venation; FL: 5 petals irregular connate (u. 2 lobes up, 3 lobes down), 5 sepals, deterrminate, u. axillary, <1", u. 4 stamens (2t,2s), stigma 2-lobed, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule (4 nutlets); ST: u. 4-angled, u. pubescent; EC:
Lauraceae (Laurel) Laurales Dicotyledonae Lauraceae: LV: u. alternate, entire or lobed, u. aromatic; FL: 6 parts, actinomorphic, imbricate, green yellow white, axillary, small, 0 petals, 6 sepals, u. 12 stamens, ovary superior; FR: drupe or berry; ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Leguminosae (Pea)
     Caesalpinioideae [Bird-of-Paradise]
     Faboideae [Pea]
     Mimosoideae [Mimosa]
Fabales Dicotyledonae CaesalpinioideaeLV: alternate, u. pinnately compound, u. entire, stipule, pulvinus; FL: 5 petals irregular, style long arching, ovary superior; FR: u. legume; ST: u. tree/shrub, root nodules; EC:
Faboideae:
LV: alternate, u. pinnately or palmately compound, u. entire, stipule, pulvinus; FL: 5 petals irregular (banner, wings, keel), style long arching, ovary superior; FR: u. legume; ST: root nodules; EC:
Mimosoideae:
LV: alternate, u. pinnately compound, u. entire, stipule, pulvinus; FL: 5 petals separate, stamens long, style long arching, ovary superior; FR: u. legume; ST: u. tree/shrub, root nodules; EC:
Lentibulariaceae (Bladderwort) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Lentibulariaceae: LV: simple or dissected underwater, alternate or basal rosette, exstipulate, u. bladder-like or revolute, insectivorous, glandular; FL: 5 parts, zygomorphoic, bilabiate, scapose, 5 petals united, 2 stamens, ovary superior: ; FR: capsule; ST: herb; EC: aquatic or moist
Liliaceae (Lily)
      Liliaceae [Lily]
      Melanthiaceae [Bunch Flower]
Liliales Monocotyledonae Liliaceae: LV: simple, entire, o. sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, o. spotted, u. actinomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, u. bulb; EC:
Melanthiaceae:
LV: simple, entire, o. sheath, parallel venation; FL: 6 parts, o. spotted, u. actinomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, crowded raceme, 6 stamens, 1 pistil, 3-carpellate; FR: u. capsule, s. berry; ST: herb, u. bulb; EC: u. poisonous
Linaceae (Flax) Linales Dicotyledonae Linaceae: LV: u. alternate, sessile, simple, entire; FL: 5 petals separate, 5 sepals separate, regular, u. terminal, perfect, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: EC:
Loasaceae (Blazingstar) Cornales Dicotyledonae  
Loganiaceae (Logania) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Loganiaceae: LV: opposite, stipulate, simple, entire; FL: sympetalous 4-5 lobes, 4-5 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. septicidal capsule, seeds o. winged; ST: vine/tree/shrub; EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) Lycopodiales (Clubmosses) Pteridophyta
Lythraceae (Loosestrife) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Lythraceae: LV: opposite/whorled, whole, entire; FL: actinomorphic, petals erose, tubular, perfect; FR: capsule; ST: u. herb; EC: u. wetland
Magnoliaceae (Magnolia) Magnoliales Dicotyledonae Magnoliaceae: LV: alternate, simple, o. evergreen, stipulate; FL: u. solitary, large, u. perfect, stamens numerous, ovary superior; FR: ST: tree/shrub; EC: o. subtropical/tropical
Malvaceae (Mallow) Malvales Dicotyledonae Malvaceae: LV: alternate, u. palmately lobed; FL: 5 petals separate, u. connate, o. solitary, o. axillary, stamens fused, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule/schizocarp; ST: u. mucilaginous; EC: u. LV/FL/FR edible
Melastomataceae (Meadow-beauty) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Melastomataceae: LV: opposite, decussate, whole, parallel venation; FL: s. zygomorphic, u. 4 petals, u. 4 sepals, perfect, anthers curved; FR: ST: EC: u. tropical
Menispermaceae (Moonseed) Ranunculales Dicotyledonae
Molluginaceae (Carpet-weed) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Molluginaceae: LV: simple; FL: FR: ST: u. herb; EC:
Monotropaceae (Indian pipe) Ericales Dicotyledonae Monotropaceae: LV: alternate, scale-like, lacking chlorophyll; FL: petals united, sepals united, pendulous, urceolate, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: herb, fleshy; EC:
Montiaceae (Spring beauty) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae
Moraceae (Mulberry) Urticales Dicotyledonae
Myricaceae (Bayberry) Myricales Dicotyledonae Myricaceae: LV: alternate, whole, o. leathery, glandular below, aromatic; FL: actinomorphic, o. spicate, u. erect, axillary, imperfect; FR: u. drupe, o. tuberculate, o. glaucous; ST: u. shrub; EC:
Najadeaceae Najadales Monocotyledonae
Nyctaginaceae (Four-o'clock) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Nyctaginaceae: LV: simple, u. opposite, entire, exstipulate; FL: 5 parts, actinomorphic, tubular, apetalous, 5 united sepals, style long, ovary superior; FR: u. achene; ST: EC: u. tropics/subtropical
Nymphaeaceae (Water-lily) Nymphaeales Dicotyledonae
Nyssaceae (Tupelo) Cornales Dicotyledonae Nyssaceae: LV: alternate, simple, entire, deciduous, u. arcuate venation, estipulate; FL: 5 parts, u. white, 5 petals, ovary inferior; FR: drupe, ovoid/oblong; ST: tree, buds imbricate; EC:
Oleaceae (Olive) Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Oleaceae: LV: opposite, u. entire, exstipulate; FL: u. 4 parts, actinomorphic, raceme/panicle, u. 4 petals united, u. 4 sepals united, 2 stamens, ovary superior; FR: ST: tree/shrub; EC:
Onagraceae (Evening-primrose) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Onagraceae: LV: whole, entire; FL: 4 petals, 4sepals, u. perfect, u. 4 or 8 stamens, 4-part stigma, ovary inferior; FR: u. capsule; ST: u. herb; EC:
Ophioglossaceae (Adder's-tongue, Grape fern) Ophioglossales (Succulent Ferns) Pteridophyta
Orchidaceae (Orchid) Orchidales Monocotyledonae Orchidaceae: LV: simple, alternate, sessile, entire, parallel venation; FL: zygomorphic, 3 petals, 3 sepals, perfect, stamen/style adnate, overy inferior; FR: capsule; ST: herb; EC:
Orobanchaceae (Broomrape) Lamiales Dicotyledonae Orobanchaceae: LV: alternate, simple, scale; FL: 5 petals (2 above, 3 below) united tubular, irregular, perfect, 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: herb, not green no chlorophyll, fleshy; EC: ecology
Osmundaceae (Royal fern) Osmundales Pteridophyta
Oxalidaceae (Wood-sorrel) Geraniales Dicotyledonae Oxalidaceae: LV: alternate, pulvinous, o. 3-palmate, entire, apex emarginate; FL: regular, 5 petals o. clawed, 5 sepals, bisexual, 10 stamens, 5 styles, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: u. herb; EC:
Palmae (Palm) Arecales Monocotyledonae
Palmariaceae Palmariales Rhodophyceae-red algae
Papaveraceae (Poppy) Papaverales Dicotyledonae Papaveraceae: LV: alternate, lobed; FL: u. 4 petals, imbricate, stamens numerous, ovary superior; FR: capsule; ST: EC:
Phytolaccaceae (Pokeweed) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Phytolaccaceae: LV: alternate, simple, entire; FL: 4-5 parts, actinomorphic, u. green white, u. raceme u. drooping, minute, apetalous, 4-5 tepals axillary; FR: u. berry-like; ST: sap white EC:
Pinaceae (Pine) Coniferales Gymnospermae
Plantaginaceae (Plantain) Plantaginales Dicotyledonae
Platanaceae (Sycamore) Hamamelidales Dicotyledonae Platanaceae: LV: alternate, simple, palmately lobed, 4-7", pulvinous, stipulate, tomentose young leaves; FL: actinomorphic, minute, globose, pendulous, imperfect, ovary superior; FR: achene, linear, 4-angled, bristles, globose head; ST: tree, exfoliating, zigzag twigs, buds valvate; EC: o. riparian
Plumbaginaceae (Sea-lavender; Leadwort) Plumbaginales Dicotyledonae
Polemoniaceae (Phlox) Solanales Dicotyledonae
Polygalaceae (Milkwort) Polygalales Dicotyledonae
Polygonaceae (Buckwheat) Polygonales Dicotyledonae Polygonaceae: LV: whole, u. alternate, u. entire, sheath; FL: small <1", actinomorphic, o. cylindrical head or spike, crowded inflorescence, no petals, u. 5-6 sepals, 3-9 stamens, ovary superior; FR: achene; ST: u. herb/shrub, jointed nodes; EC:
Polypodiaceae (Fern) Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Pontederiaceae (Pickerelweed) Commelinales Monocotyledonae
Portulacaceae (Purslane) Caryophyllales Dicotyledonae Portulacaceae: LV: simple, entire, u. stipulate, u. succulent; FL: u. 5 parts, 2 sepals (bracts), u. several styles; FR: capsule; ST: herb, <1', o. prostrate, o. fleshy, o. fleshy taproot; EC:
Potamogetonaceae (Pondweed) Najadales Monocotyledonae
Primulaceae (Primrose) Primulales Dicotyledonae
Pteridaceae Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Pyrolaceae (Wintergreen) Ericales Dicotyledonae Pyrolaceae: LV: evergreen FL: 4-5 petals separate, 4-5 sepals separate, pendulous, perfect, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule, round; ST: herb; EC: forest
Ranunculaceae (Buttercup) Ranunculales Dicotyledonae
Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn) Rhamnales Dicotyledonae

Rosaceae (Rose)
      Amygdaloideae [Plum]
      Maloideae [Apple]
      Rosoideae [Rose]
      Spiraeoideae [Spiraea]

Rosales Dicotyledonae
Rubiaceae (Bedstraw) Gentianales Dicotyledonae Rubiaceae: LV: opposite/whorled, simple, entire; FL: regular, 4-5 petals, 4-5 sepals, u. perfect, 4-5 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: ST: o. 4-angled; EC:
Rutaceae (Rue or Citrus) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Rutaceae: LV: u. entire, u. pinnate, glandular (punctate), aromatic; FL: 4-5 parts, u. actinomorphic, white yellow, cyme, determinate, ovary superior; FR: ST: u. tree/shrub; EC:
Salicaceae (Willow) Salicales Dicotyledonae
Salviniaceae (Water fern) Salviniales Pteridophyta
Santalaceae (Sandalwood) Santalales Dicotyledonae
Sapindaceae (Soapberry) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Sapindaceae: LV: u. alternate, u. pinnate, u. persistent; FL: panicle/raceme, small, sepals u. separate; FR: ST: tree/shrub/vine, buds u. persistent; EC: u. tropical
Sarraceniaceae (Pitcher-plant) Nepenthales Dicotyledonae Sarraceniaceae: LV: basal, whole, tubular, pubescent-glandular, insectivorous; FL: actinomorphic, 5 petals, u. 5 sepals, solitary, terminal, scapose, nodding, perfect, stamens numerous, stigma umbrella-like, ovary superior; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: herb; EC: wetland
Saururaceae (Lizard's-tail) Piperales Dicotyledonae
Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage) Rosales Dicotyledonae Saxifragaceae: LV: o. basal, o. lobed; FL: u. 5 petals, u. 5 sepals, pistil oblong 2 styles; FR: capsule; ST: EC:
Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon) [Figwort] Scrophulariales Dicotyledonae Scrophulariaceae: LV: u. simple, exstipulate; FL: u. 5 parts, zygomorphic, u. 5 petals (2 above, 3 below) united tubular, u. 5 sepals, u. 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: herb/shrub; EC:
Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) Sellaginellales (Spikemosses) Lycopodiophyta
Simmondsiaceae (Jojoba) Euphorbiales Dicotyledonae Simmondsiaceae: LV: opposite, evergreen, stipulate, simple, coriacious; FL: regular, dioecious, 3 long feathery stigmas; FR: loculicidal capsule; ST: shrub; EC:
Smilacaceae (Greenbrier) Liliales Monocotyledonae Smilacaceae: LV: simple, u. alternate, palmate venation, coriaceous, tendrils; FL: 6 parts, umbel, u. axillary, small, 6 stamens, 1 pistil 3 carpellate, ovary superior; FR: berry, 1-3 seeds; ST: vine, recurved prickles, rhizome/tuber; EC:
Solanaceae (Nightshade) Solanales Dicotyledonae Solanaceae: LV: u. alternate; FL: 5 petals united, 5 sepals united, 5 stamens, regular, perfect, u. axillary, u. solitary, ovary superior; FR: fruit; ST: stem, roots; EC: ecology
Sparganiaceae (Bur-reed) Typhales Monocotyledonae
Tamaricaceae (Tamarisk) Violales Dicotyledonae
Taxaceae (Yew) Coniferales Gymnospermae
Thelypteridaceae Filicales (True Ferns) Pteridophyta
Thymelaeaceae (Mezereum) Myrtales Dicotyledonae Thymelaeaceae: LV: whole, entire; FL: actinomorphic, u. tubular, ovary superior; FR: ST: EC: u. tropical/subtropical
Tiliaceae (Linden/Basswood) Malvales Dicotyledonae Tiliaceae: LV: alternate, stipulate, serrate, o. base inequilateral; FL: u. 5 petals, 5 sepals, actinomorphic, u. white/yellow, u. perfect, stamens numerous, ovary superior; FR: ST: u. tree/shrub; EC:
Typhaceae (Cattail) Typhales Monocotyledonae
Ulmaceae (Elm) Urticales Dicotyledonae
Ulvaceae (Green Algae) Ulvales Ulvophyceae-green algae
Umbelliferae (Parsley) [Apiaceae] Apiales Dicotyledonae Umbelliferae: LV: u. alternate, u. sheath, u. pinnate or dissected; FL: 5 petals, u. umbel u. compound, indeterminate, <1/2", petals separate acute inflexed, 5 stamens, ovary inferior; FR: schizocarp; ST: u. herb, grooved, hollow; EC:
Urticaceae (Nettle) Urticales Dicotyledonae Urticaceae: LV: u. opposite, serrate; FL: green/brown, ovary superior; FR: achene; ST: EC:
Valerianaceae (Valerian) Dipsacales Dicotyledonae Valerianaceae: LV: opposite/basal; FL: irregular, zygomorphic, small, 5 united petals tubular, ovary inferior; FR: achene; ST: EC:
Verbenaceae (Vervain) [Verbena] Lamiales Dicotyledonae Verbenaceae: LV: simple, opposite or s. whorled; FL: zygomorphic, 5 petals connate tubular, 5 sepals connate tubular, spike, indeterminate, small 1/6-1/3", summer/fall, perfect, 4 stamens, ovary superior; FR: drupe or schizocarp; ST: o. angled, u. pubescent; EC:
Violaceae (Violet) Violales Dicotyledonae
Viscaceae (Mistletoe) Santalales Dicotyledonae
Vitaceae (Grape) Rhamnales Dicotyledonae
Xyridaceae (Yellow-eyed grass) Commelinales Monocotyledonae
Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop) Sapindales Dicotyledonae Zygophyllaceae: LV: opposite, u. pinnate, entire, persistent; FL: 5 petals, 5 sepals, petals separate, sepals separate, u. 10 stamens, ovary superior; FR: u. capsule; ST: jointed nodes; EC: xeric